Les panneaux d’affichage dynamique de la vitesse sont utilisés dans plusieurs provinces et territoires du Canada. Ils permettent aux conducteurs de voir leur vitesse, habituellement affichée à côté du panneau indiquant la limite de vitesse permise. Ces dispositifs sont destinés à faire prendre conscience aux conducteurs des limites de vitesse en affichant en temps réel la vitesse à laquelle ils conduisent leur véhicule. On a pu constater qu’ils sont efficaces peu de temps après leur installation. Les Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse ont été mises au point afin de définir les meilleures pratiques et de fournir des recommandations pour la conception et l’utilisation de panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse dans le contexte canadien pour diverses situations. Ces Lignes directrices permettent et favorisent l’uniformité dans l’utilisation des dispositifs dans tout le Canada; elles ont été rédigées dans le but de servir de document de référence détaillé complémentaire à utiliser conjointement avec le Manuel canadien de la signalisation routière (MCSR).
Les murs de soutènement de sol stabilisé mécaniquement (MSSM) sont depuis longtemps utilisés comme murs de soutènement, mais il n’est pas toujours évident de déterminer qui est l’ultime responsable de la conception, de l’assurance de la qualité, de la gestion des actifs et de la réparation des murs, ainsi que de la surveillance en service des murs déjà construits, en particulier en cas de problèmes importants relativement à la construction ou la tenue en service. Le présent guide offre aux maîtres d’ouvrages, ingénieurs, fournisseurs et entrepreneurs des MSSM des lignes directrices pratiques en matière de sélection, de conception, de construction et d’inspection de ces ouvrages, surtout dans le cadre de projets de travaux publics. Le guide a été élaboré sur la base de l’examen de la littérature existante, complétée par de l’information transmise par divers intervenants dans ce domaine. Il ne cherche pas à reproduire les très nombreuses lignes directrices de conception déjà publiées, ni l’information connexe. Il vise plutôt à mettre en évidence les diverses facettes de l’état actuel de la pratique au Canada et à proposer des modifications à la pratique actuelle afin de corriger certaines lacunes.
This manual has been developed to assist bridge owners by establishing inspection procedures and evaluation practices that meet the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). The manual has been divided into eight sections, with each section representing a distinct phase of an overall bridge inspection and evaluation program. This edition updates Sections 3: Bridge Management Systems; 4: Inspection; 6: Load Rating; and 7: Fatigue Evaluation of Steel Bridges.
This paper is based on research carried out for the recent Canadian Transportation Act Review. It examines the potential for short sea shipping in the Great Lakes / St. Lawrence region and considers international best practices and their relevance to Canada. We revisit a study undertaken by MariNova in 2005, which examined the potential for a short sea service between Halifax augmented by a brief analysis of a Montreal-Hamilton service. The analysis removes all of the constraints previously identified and re-considers its viability. The study also examines the potential role for government, in terms of promoting investment in short sea shipping. For the purposes of this paper we consider short sea shipping to include container, roll-on, roll-off (ro-ro), bulk as well as tug-and barge operations, providing interregional, intraregional and transhipment services. Our definition does not include passenger ferries, although a significant amount of commercial cargo is carried on most of Canada’s ferry services, particularly in the Newfoundland trade.
The Canadian Marine Pilots’ Association (CMPA) recommended in their submissions to the Canadian Transportation Act Review Panel (2014), and more recently to the Minister of Transport (2016) to consider the structure and administration of a new pilotage service when assessing its potential role in the Arctic. As such, the purpose of this paper is to explore pilotage for Canadian arctic waters in the context of the Northern Marine Transportation Corridors (NMTC) Initiative as a means of improving the safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. To aid the analysis, the CMPA’s principles of organizing pilotage in Canada will be relied upon: to protect the public interest (i.e., safety); rigorous standards for qualifying as a pilot; recognition of regional differences in operating conditions, navigational challenges, types of marine traffic and supporting infrastructure; and the responsiveness of pilotage to changes in technology, vessels, infrastructure, and traffic patterns. The paper will begin with a brief overview of the necessity of the service, followed by a discussion of how pilotage could be offered in the Canadian Arctic, including how the service relates to the NMTC Initiative, how it could be administered, and what qualifications would be required of an Arctic pilot.
Transportation is one of the major contributors of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions all over the world. In Canada, transportation was the second largest source of GHG emissions in 2014, accounting for 23% of the total emissions nationwide (Environment Canada, 2016). At the provincial level, 38.4% of British Columbia’s GHG emissions came from the transportation sector (BC Ministry of Environment, 2016). Such high levels of GHG emissions can be attributed to the large expansion of the urban road network and automobile dependency in North America. It is very important to shift the paradigm and start planning our communities in a way that hinder automobile dependency and encourage people to use more sustainable modes of transportation. The fused grid model consists of several 16-hectare modules (ideally four) that provide vehicular accessibility for local traffic only and keep non-local traffic on the periphery of the modules while maintaining full pedestrian/cyclists accessibility via central green spaces and off-road pathways as shown in Figure 1. Perimeter roads in the fused grid model facilitate through traffic as per the following spacing: 1) collectors at 400 metres; 2) minor arterials at 800 metres; and 3) arterials at 1,600 metres. The classification, spacing, and alignments of the perimeter roads can be designed according to the existing ground conditions and planned land use activities. The model also provides convenient local services and amenities within a five-minute walking distance by classifying blocks located between the perimeter one-way couplet roads as mixed land use zones. All intersections in the neighbourhood are controlled by roundabouts or three-way intersections to reduce the severity of collisions. Several studies have been found in the literature that address the benefits of the fused grid model in various aspects including: safety (Sun and Lovegrove, 2013), traffic performance (IBI Group, 2007), walkability (Frank and Hawkins, 2007), and transportation modal share (Masoud et al. 2017). While previous research like Frank and Hawkins (2007) and Masoud et al. (2017) has concluded that applying fused grid principles will result in more walking and less driving, which obviously would result in reducing GHG emissions, none of the previous research quantified by how much would GHG be reduced and thus quantifying its social benefits.
There is a growing recognition of the relationship between patterns of urban land use and related levels of air pollutants (Abotalebi and Kanaroglou, 2015; Dimatulac & Maoh, 2016; Glaeser, 2011; Giuliano & Agarwal, 2011; Tyler, 2000; Zimmerman & Wiginton, 2016). The connection in this relationship is evolving land use patterns in Canada which have helped to encourage and sustain a dependency on motor vehicles. Consequently, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada from the operation of motor vehicles increased by over one-third (35%) from 1990 to 2007, whereas the growth rate of population was less than 20% over the same period (Terefe, 2010). As party to the 2016 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s Paris Agreement, Canada has committed to reducing its GHG emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. With transport there are two complementary approaches to help reach this reduction target. The first is to encourage a modal shift (Gullo & Rosales, 2016). In the urban context, this shift would be from motor vehicles to public transit, relying on policy options of full-cost pricing (e.g. tolling) and related land-use planning (e.g. Smart Growth, intensification). The second approach is to encourage more fuel efficient fleets. For the road motor vehicle fleet, this would entail a higher proportion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). This study investigates the extent to which provincial vehicle registration files (VRF) can be used as a source of information to profile the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. Such a profile is critical as a benchmark going forward in order to track changes in the motor vehicle fleet composition. The paper begins with an overview of the relationship between transportation and urban form as well as the current contribution of the transportation sector to Canada’s GHG emissions. After describing the provincial VRFs, the paper defines a typology and then estimates the motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. We conclude with an examination of possible next steps in this effort.
Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is beneficial to both road owners and builders as it allows for significant raw material cost reduction, while potentially maintaining expected pavement service life. In upcoming decades, the recycling of previously recycled pavements (i.e. re-recycling) will become widespread. There is currently little technical knowledge on how or how many times asphalt pavement can be recycled while sustaining its expected durability. A novel asphalt binder aging method involving thin layers, heat, water spray, and UV radiation was developed to simulate approximately 20 years of in-service aging. The aged binder was recovered and blended with a softer, virgin binder. The blend was subjected to the next aging cycle. The process was repeated four times to simulate four recycling cycles (80 years) at 25 percent RAP addition. Three virgin binders were tested: standard Performance Grade (PG), one grade softer PG, and standard PG softened with paraffinic oil to one PG softer binder. Very detailed chemical and rheological analyses were performed to understand the impact of multiple recycling on irreversible chemical changes and evolution of rheological properties over the time. Results indicated that at moderate recycling levels, re-recycling is a viable option if an appropriate virgin binder is used.
The local geology of Prince Edward Island (PEI) primarily consists of material soft in nature that does not meet traditional aggregate specifications for the production of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) or other surface treatments. Therefore, roughly 95 percent of PEI’s HMA aggregates must be obtained and imported from off-Island sources. The associated work, expense, and environmental impact involved has raised the Department’s interest in the viability of asphalt recycling as a potential surface treatment option. As a trial basis, the Department committed to recycling ten, one-kilometer sections of road ranging in classification from Local to Collector roads in 2016. Acceptance or rejection of the work was largely based on the ability of the Contractor to achieve the specified penetration values of the modified binder and visual inspection for defects, as well as requirements for cross slope, grade and joint construction of the completed HIR. The HIR process was constantly monitored in the field by Department staff and although not forming part of the specifications, properties such as compaction, smoothness, and asphalt cement content were monitored. This paper is an account of our experiences and lessons learned from the recent application of HIR undertaken within the Province of PEI.
In the summer of 2015, Standard General Inc. – Calgary (SGIC), a subsidiary of Colas Canada Inc., introduced a new paving material called Betoflex® with the goal of resolving a recurring permanent deformation issue of two taxiways leading to Runway 17/35 at the Calgary Airport. The 2015 mixture was developed using the French Level 2 methodology to ensure that rutting resistance performance was achieved while maintaining good mixture workability to facilitate placement and compaction. In the spring/summer of 2016, Level 4 testing was performed on various Betoflex® mixtures that could potentially be used in the Calgary area. Level 4 testing was also performed on typical mixtures used in Calgary to benchmark Betoflex® with local mixtures. The Level 4 mix-design provides information for pavement design (stiffness modulus and fatigue resistance) using the French ALIZÉ-LCPC software. This paper provides an overall perspective of the engineering of asphalt mixtures to achieve “in-service” performance not only for durability (moisture resistance and rutting), but also for pavement design performance (stiffness modulus and fatigue resistance). It also discusses how the ALIZÉ-LCPC pavement design software uses Level 4 mix-design information to optimize pavement thicknesses and/or pavement performance reliability with respect to fatigue and large radius rutting.
Asphalt binder rejuvenator use in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been gaining momentum not only to delay aging of the asphalt binder, but also to permit higher levels of binder replacement from recycled materials. In this study, an HMA mixture was designed with approximately 35 percent binder replacement from Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Per specifications, a binder grade adjustment from PG 64-22 to PG 58-28 was required. The control mixture contained a neat PG 58-28 binder. Three experimental binders contained asphalt binder that were a blend of PG 64-22 plus rejuvenator materials to produce a PG 58—28 binder. HMA mixtures containing all four asphalt were tested for cracking and rutting resistance. The laboratory study indicated that the control and experimental mixes had no difference I rutting resistance. Under short-term aging, all three experimental mixtures with rejuvenators had improved cracking resistance as measured by the Illinois Flexibility Index Test (IFIT). Under long-term aging conditions, no significant difference was observed among the control and the three experimental mixtures according to the Disc-Shaped Compact Tension (DCT) test. However, IFIT testing of long-term aged specimens showed improved cracking resistance for two of the three experimental mixtures compared to the control.
The EV market share has increased due to growing concern over environmental issues, financial incentives, and battery technology developments. Currently, EVs have sufficient driving range for intra-city trips where drivers can charge their vehicles at home or at the location of their activities. For inter-city travel, however, the trip distances are much longer and vehicles need to charge en-route to increase their driving range. Charging en-route is different from home-charging. Whereas in home-charging people can leave their vehicles plugged-in and come back later, en-route charging requires that drivers wait until the charging process is complete. Hence, it is critical to have fast chargers that cut down the charging time considerably and increase the charging coverage in order to promote EV penetration in the market. However, the high cost associated with constructing fast charging stations limits the number of charging stations that can be deployed and necessitates choosing their locations optimally. In this study, we solve a nonlinear complementarity problem to optimize the location of fast charging stations to maximize network coverage and minimize total network travel time. Results show that optimizing the location of charging stations can reduce the total travel time by up to 21% whereas unregulated expansion of the charging infrastructure can actually increase the total network travel time.
Increase in daily travel activities coupled with reliance on conventional vehicles, places a significant pressure on the environment through tailpipe emissions. Fortunately, current advancements in battery technology along with the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is often considered as one of the more viable solutions to combating climate change and promoting sustainable energy. Due to the scarcity of EVs in the current market, many studies have utilized stated preference (SP) analysis along with estimating different forms of econometric model to identify and to understand factors affecting consumers’ choice decisions regarding new vehicle technologies (for example: Hackbarth & Madlener, 2016; Hoen & Koetse, 2014; Qian & Soopramanien, 2011). In addition, Potoglou and Kanaroglou (2008) provided a comprehensive literature review on various research methods regarding alternative fueled vehicle demand, focusing on SP analysis and different discrete choice models. Moreover, Rezvani, Jansson, & Bodin (2015) focused primarily on empirical studies evaluating various consumer behaviors towards plug-in electric vehicle adoption. While most the existing studies have been concerned with household EV ownership, little has been done to explore the potential of adopting these emerging vehicle technologies by commercial fleets. Public and private organizations typically have high vehicle purchase rates (Dijk, Orsato, & Kemp, 2013) and high average annual mileage (Gnann, Plötz, Funke, & Wietschel, 2015), making them ideal EV adopters; thus, it is important to understand the motivations behind their EV acquisition decisions. Some of these motivations are firm-specific; government agency’s EV adoption is partly driven by restrictive legislations, while the potential profit increase through technological leadership encourages corporations’ EV purchasing decisions (Sierzchula, 2014). The analysis on this study is built on the extensive works regarding new vehicle technology ownership and extends their analyses on consumer rental context. As of 2015, the rental industry accounts for about 69% of all car registrations and approximately 47% of all light truck registrations, which are the highest in both categories (Canadian Automotive Fleet, 2016). The focus of this study is to determine and evaluate the preferences and motivations of Canadian consumers towards renting certain vehicle types using a SP survey.
Transit service reliability is one of the highly valued attributes for users and operators. This paper examines the impact on headway regularity and passenger loads in a simulated bus operation due to the bus capacity limits and the variability of departure headways. For the simulation purpose, four operational scenarios are set up. Same timetable and route characteristics are considered for all scenarios. In the first scenario, it is assumed that buses have infinite capacity and can accommodate all passengers waiting at bus stops. In other scenarios, bus capacity is constrained with different carrying capacities in order to analyze the impact of passengers being left behind when buses are full. The degree of dispatch headway also is varied to examine effects of headway regularity along the downstream of the route. Passengers arrival and dispatch headway of bus are assumed to follow Poisson and Gamma distribution respectively. Travel time between stops is assumed as constant in order to isolate the effect of dispatch headway variability. The simulation studies demonstrate the propagation of headway irregularity along the downstream of routes, a correlation between bus headways and passenger loading that caused bus bunching.
Meeting the needs of passengers will increasingly become a competitive factor for each stakeholder of the air transportation system. To achieve this goal, a passenger-centric view needs to be employed. Since passengers may encounter many modes of transportation during travel, adopting the passenger-centric view leads in a natural way to intermodality. Timely provision of relevant information is one of the most demanded services. Exact knowledge of information and respective interfaces required may lower the inhibition threshold of stakeholders to share information. In this paper, we describe the data model and the interface model necessary to implement a Passenger Information System on a mobile device. The features of our system comprise real-time and personalized information about departure times of urban transport and air transport, estimated time to complete the next step, such as check-in or security check, and estimated spare time for visiting the retail area. Data model and interface model are described by using standard methods in computer science, so that the description is independent of the implementation itself. Furthermore, it is transferable to other situations where a Passenger Information System is to be installed. In future work, we will implement a Passenger Information System on the basis of the data interface model described. We will evaluate the performance of the data interface model described with respect to reliability and throughput. We will answer the question of whether the model is appropriate for real-world applications. A further step would be the dissemination of the — hopefully positive — results of the evaluation among stakeholders in order to propose an information system which is independent of the data’s owner.
Our literature review reveals that most applications of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models in transportation fall into comparative analysis, where scenarios before and after transportation projects or policies are compared. However, the potentials of these models go beyond just comparative analysis. In this paper, a framework is proposed that introduces the concept of optimization into the CGE context. This framework is particularly aimed at optimizing transportation infrastructure investment over space and time. The proposed framework offers an empirically-based conversion of infrastructure investment (i.e., in $) into transportation network attributes (e.g., capacity). The proposed methodology is described in the next section, followed by a formulation of a simple non-trivial model. Then, concluding remarks and current and future research directions are presented.
Productivity is a measure of how a firm, such as a railway company, uses inputs like labour, material, capital, etc., to produce outputs such as transportation movements and services. An increase in productivity occurs if the company produces a greater quantity of its outputs with the same quantity of inputs, or uses less quantity of inputs to produce the same volume of outputs. Productivity can be compared between firms, industry sectors, regions, countries, or even groups of countries in economic or political blocks. The aim of this paper is to present a new method to calculate an index related to the Canadian Railways Total Factor Productivity.
This paper presented cluster-based analysis for the home-based tours. The cluster-based approach can be utilized to capture differences between homogenous clusters of travelers in terms of mode choices and their influential factors. The immediate future work includes predicting modal shares for comparing the accuracy of the model. Since this study used public-use micro data, one limitation of this study is that it cannot incorporate the effects of built-environment variables into the models. The next step will include incorporating the built-environment variables into the tour-mode choice modeling using the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) dataset. From the cluster analysis, it has been found that there exist significant differences among the four travelers’ clusters in terms of tour attributes. This explains the need for incorporating the heterogeneity of travelers’ grouping in the travel demand forecasting model. An improvement of this work can be achieved by modeling the household interactions for joint tours, with special attention to chauffeuring trips. This study offers a clustering approach to model the travelers in separate internally homogenous clusters, so that mode-choice modeling can reflect the latent heterogeneity among the travelers.
The physical movement of goods plays a key role in many market transactions, making the transportation system an essential foundation for a national economy. As a trade-reliant nation with its population spread over a vast landscape, Canada is particularly dependent on an effective transportation system. And, in order to assess the national transport system and its ability to move freight, quality statistical information is required. In several OECD countries, a Freight Analysis Framework is used as a planning tool for assessing the transport network and its capacity to meet projected demand. This study investigates the potential of capturing import shipments by examining American outbound shipments to Canada. It begins by reviewing a plausible Canadian framework and data considerations. To further our understanding of this shipper-based approach, it examines the number, value and weight of American export shipments to Canada from the 2012 CFS. Next, it focusses on other characteristics such as the region of origin, type of industry, commodity classification, and mode of transport. The study concludes by discussing the technical and organization considerations in moving forward.
Canada signed the Canada-European Union (EU) Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) in October of 2016, which was later ratified by the European Parliament in February, 2017. This agreement eliminates tariff barriers and enhances accessibility to the EU market (Government of Canada, 2016). The Canadian government investigates the future impacts of CETA on the nation’s economy, regulation, society, and employment size, but evaluation of Canada’s transportation system under the CETA is almost forgotten (Bachmann, 2017). The objective of this paper is to assess the potential impact of CETA on the Canadian transportation network by estimating the origin-destination trade flows, mode share, and transportation flows before and after the CETA.