Photo radar was introduced in Ontario in 1994 by the NDP government and discontinued in 1995 by the Conservative government. In late 2016, the Liberal government announced that legislation would be tabled to re-introduce photo radar in school zones and designated “community safety zones”. Has enough changed in two decades with the use of this technology elsewhere in Canada to solve the problems that resulted in Ontario’s dropping of photo radar the first time around?
The paper provides final comments from the original lead author of the paper entitled "Longitudinal Thermal Cracking Phenomenon: Thermal Imaging Detection and Laboratory Case Studies," which was published in the proceedings of the CTAA 61st Annual Conference. The author of the original paper would like to acknowledge the detailed response submitted by Mr. Brown, Consultant Engineer. The comments make it possible to revive the discussions on the importance of improving the homogeneity of asphalt laying. The definition criterion of the Ministere des Transports, de la Mobilite durable et de l’Electrification des transports (MTMDET) concerning thermal streaks includes the therm “thermal” with reference to the type of measure used, regardless of the type of segregation that generates this thermal signature. Since the defects in the distribution of the asphalt are not easily identifiable, thermal imaging, allowing the detection of thermal streaks and the possibility of seeing the effects of paver’s adjustments, is the ideal tool to reduce risks of longitudinal cracking in asphalt pavements.
The authors present a very complete paper with excellent laboratory data on the properties of a physically segregated mix and point out the problems associated segregated mix in terms of performance. They have also shown that non-destructive thermal imaging carried out as the mat is laid can effectively locate physical segregation. However, type of segregation they highlight in this paper is not related to the temperature of the mix. In this Author’s opinion, this is physical segregation caused by the irregularities in the flow of material under the screed. It can be detected with thermal imagery but it cannot be resolved or prevented by the techniques used to address thermal segregation.
À la demande du ministre des Transports, le Comité sénatorial permanent des transports et des communications a mené une étude intitulée « La technologie des véhicules automatisés et son avenir : Paver la voie » portant sur les questions techniques et réglementaires liées à l’arrivée des véhicules branchés et automatisés (c.-à-d. sans conducteur). Le Comité a entendu 78 témoins venant du Canada et des États-Unis, a reçu un bon nombre de mémoires écrits de la part des différents secteurs touchés et a assisté à de nombreuses démonstrations de cette technologie qui évolue rapidement. Le Comité a formulé 16 recommandations à l’intention du gouvernement fédéral. Nous croyons que ces recommandations contribueront à établir une stratégie nationale coordonnée sur les véhicules automatisés et branchés.
At the request of the Minister of Transport, the Standing Senate Committee on Transport and Communications undertook this study, “Driving Change: Technology and the Future of the Automated Vehicle”, on the regulatory and technical issues related to the deployment of automated (i.e. driverless) and connected vehicles. The Committee heard from over 78 witnesses from across Canada and the United States, received a number of written submissions from various sectors involved, and participated in many impressive demonstrations of this quickly developing technology. The Committee is making 16 recommendations to the federal government, recommendations we believe will help build a coordinated national strategy on automated and connected vehicles.
Traffic congestion has become a major challenge in most urban areas. In recent years, the development of measures to mitigate traffic congestion has become a priority task for many road agencies. The objectives of the guidelines were to develop approaches for defining and measuring traffic congestion and identifying performance measures (indices) to quantify congestion as well as to provide guidance on how to use different data sources for measuring congestion and presenting traffic congestion information. The identification of congestion and its characteristics was the first step towards selecting appropriate mitigation measures. Based on the findings of the literature and jurisdictional survey, traffic congestion was defined and a range of performance metrics to measure and monitor traffic congestion were identified. The long list of indices adopted from the literature was evaluated against a number of criteria. The document provides a correlation matrix to assist practitioners in selecting the appropriate data collection method for measuring congestion in different applications. The guidelines also provide recommendations for selecting various tools to present congestion indices as well as a decision support tool to assist users in selecting the most appropriate congestion indices, data collection techniques, and visualization tools for their applications.
Dynamic speed display signs are being used in many jurisdictions across Canada. The devices display the speed of passing vehicles, typically along with a sign showing the posted speed limit. Intended to increase driver awareness of speed limits and to provide instant feedback to motorists by displaying the actual speed being travelled, the devices have been found to be effective shortly following installation. The Application Guidelines for Speed Display Devices were developed to establish best practices and guidance for speed display devices design and application in the Canadian context for a variety of uses. The Guidelines enable and encourage uniformity in application of devices throughout Canada, and are intended to be a complementary detailed reference document, for use in conjunction with the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Canada (MUTCDC).
Au cours des dernières années, une prolifération de carrefours giratoires a été observée partout au Canada. À ce jour, il n’existe aucune source unique traitant de la conception, de la construction, du fonctionnement et de l’entretien des carrefours giratoires à l’intention des professionnels canadiens. Chaque région du pays a choisi de s’inspirer de différentes sources, y compris des lignes directrices d’autres pays. Le Guide canadien de conception de carrefours giratoires a pour objet de fournir des renseignements et des conseils sur la planification, la conception, la construction, le fonctionnement, l’entretien et la sécurité des carrefours giratoires au Canada. Le guide sert de document d’accompagnement au Guide canadien de conception géométrique des routes de l’Association des transports du Canada et fournit des directives spécifiques à l’utilisation et à la conception de carrefours giratoires.
The authors of the original 2015 CTAA manuscript “Physical Hardening in Asphalt” wish to acknowledge the response paper submitted by Mr. Alexander (Sandy) Brown. We wish to thank Mr. Brown for his extensive analysis of the weather data surrounding the early 2014 and 2015 cracking incidents in the Battersea Road, Kingston contract of 2009. As the lead author of the original manuscript, and the person who prepared the Battersea Road case study for the 2015 Ottawa podium presentation, I wish to provide this Author’s Closure in response to the discussion prepared by Mr. Brown. I disagree with his conclusion that it would have been better to specify a regular PG -34 grade for the Battersea Road reconstruction. The LS-299 Double-Edge-Notched Tension (DENT) and LS-308 Extended Bending Beam Rheometer (ExBBR) tests and associated acceptance criteria will soon be used by a majority of user agencies in Ontario, and are gaining attention in the rest of Canada and abroad for their precision and results.
Rather than a commentary on the paper presented in the 2015 CTAA proceedings, this is a commentary on the presentation given at the 2015 conference, which presented information not included in the paper. The authors presented information regarding a case study on cracking to an 8-year-old pavement on Battersea Road in Kingston, Ontario. The presentation was critical of the performance of the asphalt cement that met to new specifications developed by the paper’s authors and Queen’s University. The case study presented indicated that while the asphalt cement met all the testing procedures outlined in the contract documents it still cracked in 5 years. The specified asphalt cement grade on the contract was a PG 58-28 meeting Extended Bending Beam Rheometer (ExBBR) and Double Edge Notched Tension (DENT) criteria. The issue that needs to be addressed is the specification of a PG xx-28 for pavements in Kingston, Ontario.
The original paper examined initial cracking performance of various pavement sections and evaluated the relationship between field cracking and test results for Extended Bending Beam Rheometer (ExBBR), Double Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test, and Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR). Some of te pavement sections were constructed as test sections with construction and material variables closely accounted for, while others such as the 2007 investigation and 2011 asphalt cement initiatives were not. Where not constructed as a controlled test section, results can always be debated. However, the overarching observation from all studies was that the poor quality of the asphalt cement was one of the main contributing factors to premature pavement cracking and that implementation of an enhanced specification was necessary. The ultimate goal remains to move towards a performance specification addressing cracking and overall durability. The authors of the original paper would like to acknowledge the commentary by Mr. Sandy Brown, Consulting Engineer in Toronto, Ontario. It is believed that the topic is important and such technical discussions are necessary to better understand the effect of asphalt cement quality on the performance of asphalt pavements. This paper provides our response to the comments in the same order as the commentary paper.
Premature pavement cracking is a type of distress that has been gaining increasing attention in recent years. Much of MTO’s research into the distress has been focused on the quality of the asphalt cement. While this author agrees that the specifications for asphalt cement in Ontario need to be improved, the issues are much broader than just the asphalt cement. Nonetheless, MTO’s paper presents much of the background for their development of two new test procedures: the Extended Bending Beam Rheometer (ExBBR) test and the Double Edge Notched Tension (DENT). These tests were developed to address premature pavement cracking in Ontario. However, an examination of the data presented in the paper in support of the new specifications indicates that the conclusion may not be as certain as portrayed.
A GIS is classically defined as a system that inputs, stores, processes, analyses, and outputs geographic data. Advancements in processing tools and computing power have not changed the fundamental definition. This poster demonstrates how these elements of GIS, represented by the GIS Lifecycle Loop, can be used to analyze road LiDAR data for roadway settlement detection and asset identification.
In recent years, the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) has identified a need for a rehabilitation method that: a) has a long service life, b) can be installed in 8-hour construction windows, and c) can be installed reliably. Because of good success in past, PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS were identified as a promising option. Support conditions beneath panels are typically considered to be one of the primary considerations for a well-performing precast slab. During detailed design, three different designs differentiated by their support conditions were produced. A test section was constructed in September 2016 which incorporated each of the three designs. This study considers and evaluates the support conditions based on their construction, including input from the MTO and Dufferin Construction, who constructed the test section.
Although Superpave provides pavement engineers with a method of selecting materials and designing for better performance, the prediction and evaluation of its performance is not integrated in agency pavement management systems (PMS). There is a need to investigate the realistic prediction of the performance of Superpave and how it is used in the pavement management system. The main objective of this research was to compare the distresses predicted by the Mechanistic -Empirical (M-E) approach to the field evaluated performance and Laboratory performance tests.
This study looks at the initial surface texture of three PCC pavements constructed in summer/fall of 2016 and compares with skid-resistance performance as measured by the British Pendulum Test (BPT).
Residential streets within the City of Hamilton have composite pavements that require a rehabilitation solution. Composite pavements are usually maintained using a mill-and-replace strategy, however, due to joints in the underlying concrete pavement, reflective cracking through the asphalt is very common. Objectives of this study included assessing the feasibility of concrete overlays as a resurfacing/maintenance strategy for the City of Hamilton to use on its municipal streets; developing a construction/implementation guideline for municipalities; and measuring key aspects such as construction cost, construction challenges, pavement durability, and required maintenance cost and frequency.
More than 25 design methods exist for jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCPs) --Many are based on the 1950s AASHO Road Test, including AASHTO 93 and CHAUSEE2 --The prominence of these methods created an expectation for JPCP thicknesses Modern JPCP design methods in North American are: --Founded in mechanistic (M) principles such as finite element analyses and; --Supplemented with empirical (E) calibration to field performance to increase the accuracy of key performance predictions of importance to owners and users, such as: Cracking in slabs, Faulting in joints, and International Roughness Index (IRI). This study extends prior work that compared AASHTO 93, Pavement ME, and StreetPave to illustrate the breadth of design variables considered and the sensitivity of required JPCP thickness to traffic magnitude, the use of dowels, concrete flexural strength, concrete modulus of elasticity, edge support, design reliability, and k-value
Stage 1 of the Southwest Transitway, the initial phase of the City of Winnipeg’s rapid transit network, opened for service in April 2012 providing fast, frequent, reliable service without transfer for most passengers travelling between the southwest part of the City and downtown. The City’s next rapid transit project, Stage 2 of the Southwest Transitway, will extend the transitway southerly to the University of Manitoba. The Southwest Rapid Transitway (Stage 2) and Pembina Highway Underpass Project (SWT2) includes the construction of 7.6 km of exclusive transitway runningway and active transportation paths; six transitway and three rail structures; a noise attenuation wall; two land drainage pump stations; eight rapid transit stations; park and ride facilities; extensive utility and rail relocation works; and reconstruction and widening of the Pembina Highway Underpass. Advancing SWT2 from functional design to construction required the collaboration of engineering specialists, procurement lawyers, and financial advisors. This paper focuses on the engineering aspect of 1) the preparation of the business case and value for money assessment (VFM) for a PPP Canada funding application; 2) preparation and evaluation of the request for qualification (RFQ); 3) preparation and evaluation of the Request for Proposal (RFP), and 4) finalization of the project agreement (PA) for SWT2. The business case and VFM assessment compared a Design, Build, Finance, (operate), and Maintain (P3) procurement against a traditional Design-Bid-Build approach. The engineering aspect for this process included preparation of detailed capital cost estimates. Due to the nature of SWT2, PPP Canada’s Schematic Estimate Guide was not directly applicable (typically used for vertical infrastructure) so a modified costing format was developed. Following confirmation of the P3 procurement method and project funding, an RFQ was issued that prequalified three Proponents. The RFP issued to the Proponents was separated into two main parts: 1) RFP (bidding instructions); and 2) PA (project contract) that detailed the terms of the project delivery. Engineering services provided during the RFP open period included Proponent requests for information, participation in commercially confidential design meetings, modifying the PA to facilitate Proponent innovations, and assistance in the evaluation of technical submissions. The Government of Canada is contributing up to $91.2 million through the PPP Canada Fund while the Province of Manitoba and City of Winnipeg will contribute the balance of the Project costs. At a cost estimate of $467.3 million, this is the largest infrastructure investment undertaken by the City of Winnipeg to date.
High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes are considered as one of the traffic management strategies to efficiently utilize the available roadway capacity. In order to understand drivers’ reactions to the planned HOT lane along the Highway 427 corridor in the City of Toronto and estimate the value of time (VOT) and value of reliability (VOR), a web-based stated preference survey was carefully designed and conducted. Using Multinomial Logit (MNL) and Nested Logit (NL) models, the travellers’ willingness-to-pay was derived as the trade-off between travel time saved and toll incurred. The models were further estimated for different market segments.