In asphalt plants, moisture fluctuations in aggregate stockpiles present a problem for process control. To improve the production process, real-time methods of monitoring aggregate moisture in stockpiles, cold feed bins, and on conveyor belts have been used with varying levels of success. This paper presents a field-evaluation of the accuracy of a real-time measurement system for measuring moisture content of virgin aggregate mixes moving on a conveyor belt for asphalt production. This system uses nuclear techniques, with no components in contact with the material flow or the belt, to determine the moisture content. Due to its use of low activity radioisotopic sources and a safe design, the system is categorized as a ‘generally licensed’ device by the US Nuclear Regulatory Agency imposing minimal regulatory burden on the US plant owners. This measurement system was evaluated during the 2015 and 2016 production seasons at a continuous-type asphalt plant in Wisconsin, USA. Based on the study, the moisture measurement system showed a good sensitivity to moisture in in aggregate mixes with 0.9% wt. response to a 1.0% wt. change in moisture. It also showed a good measurement precision of 0.1% wt. at one standard deviation for a 20 second averaging. Over one thousand samples, with limestone as the main aggregate type, were collected from the belt and were used for comparing the moisture measurements from the new system to that by the oven drying method. For the two methods, the correlation of determination was 0.69 and the difference in moisture content was 0.10 +/- 0.35% wt. at one standard deviation. The new method did not show dependence on the nominal maximum aggregate size of the mixes.
Our initiative set out to create a three-dimensional (3D) virtual learning tool that allows instructors and students to view and interact with models in a virtual simulated platform. The process involved: 1) Streamlining the 3D model creation procedure 2) Building a model viewer for parts familiarization and task training 3) Creating an efficient production workflow for getting content into the custom model viewer.
Almost all Saskatchewan highways have long stretches of rural roads through flat agricultural land with little roadside development and very few intersections. Traffic volumes are often relatively low on these rural highway sections and the travel speeds on these highways are normally high. However these rural highways often have short sections passing through small urban communities. These highway sections in small urban communities often have higher traffic volumes than the adjacent rural highway sections. These highway sections in small urban communities may have to accommodate through traffic as well as provide access to local businesses and residences. At some of these locations, due to economic and population growth, transportation needs have evolved beyond what these highway sections and communities were originally designed for. Highways at some of these locations may also function as local community main streets, which mean that these highway sections can be characterized by frequent intersections, property accesses, pedestrians and cyclists, school zones, and roadside parking. As a consequence unique safety concerns are identified. For example vehicles accustomed to the high travelling speed outside the towns tend to drive fast and pose risks to local traffic, pedestrians, and cyclists in towns. Accommodation of the local traffic and vulnerable road users while maintaining appropriate mobility is very important in these situations. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure has conducted safety studies for highway sections near and within towns’ urban limits to proactively identify safety issues for improvement. The first phase study was for highways through small towns with population less than 1,000 and the second phase study was for highways through larger towns with population greater than 1,000. The studies used methodologies such as stakeholders (ministry regional traffic engineers, municipal officials, and RCMP officers) surveys and discussions to identify situations/locations with potential safety risks, site visits and assessment, GIS analysis tool in collision data analysis and assessment of roadway geometrics and signings etc. The studies have identified some common opportunities for safety improvements system wide and have also identified some safety concerns at some specific locations in towns. Countermeasures have been recommended such as establishing graduated speed transitions on highway approaches to towns, improving conspicuity of intersections, and enhancing highway sections in town centres as community streets among others for traffic safety improvements.
As towns and cities throughout North America begin to show signs of aging, the number of emerging mature neighbourhoods and communities within municipalities has burgeoned. The rapid growth of these areas has created transportation safety problems of a magnitude and nature that are hitherto unknown to governing bodies. Mature neighbourhoods are defined as those communities developed in the historic past that often consist of older and smaller dwellings built on properties with a sizable lot in quiet streets. As the supply of large properties in towns continues to decrease and the costs of developable land continues to increase, the demand and pressure to rebuild infills in mature neighbourhoods is expected to rise. Developers, or existing owners, are now looking into purchasing or converting existing properties and turning them into larger or multi-purpose residences that may be incompatible with the existing built-form, and which would create different safety issues on transportation. Many municipalities such as the County of Strathcona and the City of Edmonton in Alberta are currently conducting studies to formulate Mature Neighbourhood Overlay (MNO) policies with a view to lessen the threat of loss of character in these redevelopment areas, to protect green spaces, and to balance needs with zoning regulations. While these initiatives to address the land use impacts are necessary and commendable, the same corresponding attention have not been paid to the impact on transportation that are often as challenging, given tight existing conditions and constraints. To be successful, care must be taken to ensure that these infill developments will not create a negative impact, a perceived or real hazard, or an unacceptable increase in traffic on local roads. This paper sets out to explore some of the more critical issues on transportation in mature neighbourhoods. It examines the unique features within these communities such as the blending of future houses with existing buildings; demographics of residents; traffic calming measures and their implementation; curbside management; geometric conditions and constraints; driveway accesses, setbacks, and parking; roadway dieting; conditions created by senior living; high and low end condominiums, etc.; as they relate to transportation and traffic safety. Strategies, policies and guideline solutions are suggested. The importance of public engagement is highlighted. Case studies using Strathcona County as an example are cited. It is recommended that more encompassing studies in the future should be carried out by research bodies to formulate a best practice guideline document.
The Quebec Ministry of Transport, Sustainable Mobility and Transportation Electrification (Ministère des Transports, de la Mobilité durable et de l’Électrification des transports, hereinafter MTMDET) is responsible for the winter maintenance of an extensive road network. In Quebec, local roads (107,000 km) are under municipal jurisdiction, while the MTMDET is responsible for all provincial roads and highways (31,000 km). The larger part (66%) of the provincial road network is maintained by private sector companies. The rest is maintained by the MTMDET (20%) and municipalities (14%). Each year, the MTMDET uses over 800,000 tonnes of de-icing agent on its road network in the winter months, which has a considerable negative impact to varying degrees on nearby flora and fauna, water quality, soil quality and infrastructure. Water quality tests conducted in several lakes close to urban areas across the province of Quebec has shown that, in certain locations, chloride concentrations are steadily increasing. And in a few locations, these concentrations have surpassed the chronic toxicity threshold for aquatic life. Considering that sodium chloride’s impact on the environment and on roadway infrastructures is well documented, the responsible use and management of this product is of primordial importance.
The 2nd Concession is a major north-south arterial corridor under the jurisdiction of The Regional Municipality of York (York Region). Located in the Town of East Gwillimbury, Ontario, the corridor crosses a popular conservation area and recreational trail, situated in the watershed of the East Holland River which is managed by the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA). York Region and the Town of East Gwillimbury are undergoing tremendous growth in population and employment. The 2nd Concession Project improves mobility and enhances the environment with sustainable, context sensitive infrastructure in response to growth. The innovative, enhanced public outreach program included early and consistent stakeholder engagement with mandatory and non-mandatory public open house meetings, kitchen table discussions with residents, site visits, a “visioning” workshop and regular newsletters. This established a high degree of trust and resulted in early stakeholder buy-in which accelerated project timelines and saved tax dollars. The early identification of environmental enhancements resulted in a design that improves mobility for all corridor users including pedestrians and cyclists and promotes active transportation.
Civil and Geotechnical Engineering design practice primarily considers general slope stability, with surficial slope stability addressed with less design rigour. Long term surficial slope stability is commonly accomplished with vegetation in the form of grass lined slopes, where detailing of same is accomplished by the slope stability engineer, a vegetation specialist or an erosion control practitioner. When removing in-situ organic material pre-construction, there is common misconception that topsoil replaced post-construction must be equal to, or greater than the depth of the original topsoil. Little, if any attention is given to examining the vegetation establishment capacity of the civil grade. Common practice is to place topsoil on top of civil grade with typically insufficient detailing considering mechanical sloughing or organic leaching. With increased slopes, more compacted subgrades and less compacted topsoil, there comes increased likelihood of surficial slope instability. This paper examines surficial slope instability where design detailing may be a contributing factor to long term surficial slope instability; where instability is found within days, months, years or even decades. Further, this paper expands on the potential contribution of the erosion control industry where commonly delivered ‘Best Management Practices’ may contribute to surficial slope instability. Evidence will be brought to support discussion around less topsoil and greater diligence in design detailing, to cause long-term sustainable root establishment in the civil grade for more robust grass liner protection of engineered infrastructure.
Frost susceptible subgrade soils, when exposed to moisture and freezing condition, cause frost heaving on road surfaces. In cold climates, like Manitoba, many road sections experience surface roughness and pavement deterioration due to seasonal frost heaving and melting. Subgrade soils frost heave remedial measures such as removal and replacement, embankment construction using non-frost susceptible materials, soil stabilization or thick pavement structures are generally very costly and/or impractical. Moreover, available guidelines or study results for characterizing soils as frost susceptible and classifying into different severity levels vary widely. Remedial measures or management of frost heave issues also vary among highway agencies. All these variations or factors hinder the selection of an appropriate approach to deal with this issue. In Manitoba, in the past, a subgrade soil was characterized as frost susceptible if it met several characteristics. If a soil was characterized as frost susceptible, the calculated structural number (SN) was increased by 25%. The historical basis for such characterization and a fixed adjustment is unknown. Manitoba has now adopted the “value for money analysis approach” for all design, construction and operational practices. This led to a review of the appropriateness of these method/practice and revise to meet Manitoba’s current needs. Manitoba has completed major changes to frost susceptibility characterization/classification and pavement structure design/analysis for frost susceptible subgrade soils. This led to a more cost-effective and reasonable pavement structure design and management. This paper presents the comparison of various frost susceptibility characterization and classification, Manitoba’s past practice and recent changes, and the impacts of these changes. This paper and presentation may be an educational opportunity for interested individuals or agencies.
Transportation Research Record 2540 contains the following papers: Development and Application of a Scale to Measure Station Design Quality for Personal Safety (Rahaman,M, Currie,G, and Muir,C); Group and Single Pedestrian Behavior in Crowd Dynamics (Do,T, Haghani,M, and Sarvi,M); Use of Agent-Based Crowd Simulation to Investigate the Performance of Large-Scale Intermodal Facilities: Case Study of Union Station in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Hoy,G, Morrow,E, and Shalaby,A); Streetcar Resurgence in the United States: Transit Strategy, Growth Machine Tactic, or Some of Both? (Ramos-Santiago,LE, Brown,JR, and Nixon,H); Evaluating Pay-on-Entry Versus Proof-of-Payment Ticketing in Light Rail Transit (Currie,G and Reynolds,J); Redesigning Rail Transit Short-Turn Operations: Case Study of Line 2 of the Shanghai Metro in China (Sun,Y, Schonfeld,PM, Lu,Y, and Zhou,M); Planning Urban Ring Rail Transit Lines: Case Study of Shanghai, China (Saidi,S, Ji,Y, Cheng,C, Guan,J, Jiang,S, Kattan,L, Du,Y, and Wirasinghe,SC); Integrated Line Planning and Train Scheduling for an Urban Rail Transit Line (Wang,Y, Pan,X, Su,S, Cao,F, Tang,T, Ning,B, and De Schutter,B); Tapping into Delay: Assessing Rail Transit Passenger Delay with Data from a Tap-In, Tap-Out Fare System (Antos,J and Eichler,MD); Study of Standing Passenger Density in Subway Cars Based on Passengers’ Spatial Comfort: Case Study of Beijing Subway Line 4 (Chen,F, Fang,J, and Wu,Q); Time-Expanded Network Model of Train-Level Subway Ridership Flows Using Actual Train Movement Data (Stasko,T, Levine,B, and Reddy,A); Impact of Platform Edge Doors on Passengers’ Boarding and Alighting Time and Platform Behavior (de Ana Rodriguez,G, Seriani,S, and Holloway,C); Geographic Information System Concept of Operations as a First Step Toward Total Enterprise Asset Management: Metro-North Commuter Railroad Case Study (Kizner,T, Goldemberg,M, Shapiro,M, ten Siethoff,B, Wei,X, Fogel,D, Kennard,J, and Lu,A); Tram Safety in Mixed Traffic: Best Practices from Switzerland (Marti,CM, Kupferschmid,J, Schwertner,M, Nash,A, and Weidmann,U); Alternative Methods for the Calculation of Pedestrian Catchment Areas for Public Transit (Macias,K).
Transportation Research Record 2542 contains the following papers: Transportation Issues of Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Findings from Focus Group Discussions (Lubin,A and Feeley,C); Travel Patterns, Needs, and Barriers of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Report from a Survey (Deka,D, Feeley,C, and Lubin,A); Shaping the New Future of Paratransit: An Agenda for Research and Practice (Mulley,C and Nelson,JD); Automated Sidewalk Assessment Method for Americans with Disabilities Act Compliance Using Three-Dimensional Mobile Lidar (Ai,C and Tsai,Y); Prediction of Benefits of Special Taxi-Pooling Design for Large Transport Terminals: Case Study of Beijing West Railway Station (Yao,W, Wang,Y, Wang,N, Yang,G, and Zhang,C); Spatiotemporal Pattern Analysis of Taxi Trips in New York City (Hochmair,HH); Trying Out Mobility as a Service: Experiences from a Field Trial and Implications for Understanding Demand (Sochor,J, Karlsson,ICMA, and Strömberg,H); Development of an Employer-Based Transportation Demand Management Strategy Evaluation Tool with an Advanced Discrete Choice Model in Its Core (Hasnine,MS, Weiss,A, and Habib,KN); Designing an Automated Demand-Responsive Transport System: Fleet Size and Performance Analysis for a Campus–Train Station Service (Winter,K, Cats,O, de Almeida Correia,GH, and van Arem,B); Understanding Carsharing Risk and Insurance Claims in the United States (Shaheen,S, Shen,D, and Martin,E); Negotiation and Coordination in Carpooling: Agent-Based Simulation Model (Hussain,I, Knapen,L, Yasar,AUH, Bellemans,T, Janssens,D, and Wets,G); Car2work: Shared Mobility Concept to Connect Commuters with Workplaces (Regue,R, Masoud,N, and Recker,W); Autonomous Vehicle Fleet Sizes Required to Serve Different Levels of Demand (Boesch,PM, Ciari,F, and Axhausen,KW); Dynamic Ridesharing: Exploration of Potential for Reduction in Vehicle Miles Traveled (Rodier,C, Alemi,F, and Smith,D).
Transportation Research Record 2544 contains the following papers: Use of Mobile Ticketing Data to Estimate an Origin–Destination Matrix for New York City Ferry Service (Rahman,S, Wong,J, and Brakewood,C); Evaluating Off-Peak Pricing Strategies in Public Transportation with an Activity-Based Approach (Lovric,M, Raveau,S, Adnan,M, Pereira,FC, Basak,K, Loganathan,H, and Ben-Akiva,M); Impact of a Loan-Based Public Transport Fare System on Fare Evasion: Experience of Transantiago, Santiago, Chile (Bucknell,C, Munoz,JC, Schmidt,A, Navarro,M, and Simonetti,C); Nonadditive Public Transit Fare Pricing Under Congestion with Policy Lessons from a Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Chin,A, Lai,A, and Chow,JYJ); Reducing Subway Crowding: Analysis of an Off-Peak Discount Experiment in Hong Kong (Halvorsen,A, Koutsopoulos,HN, Lau,S, Au,T, and Zhao,J); Social and Distributional Effects of Public Transport Fares and Subsidy Policies: Case of Madrid, Spain (Cadena,PCB, Vassallo,JM, Herraiz,I, and Loro,M); Inferring Public Transport Access Distance from Smart Card Registration and Transaction Data (Viggiano,C, Koutsopoulos,HN, Attanucci,J, and Wilson,NHM); Predicting Express Train Choice of Metro Passengers from Smart Card Data (Kim,KM, Hong,SP, Ko,SJ, and Min,JH); Bus Network Microsimulation with General Transit Feed Specification and Tap-in-Only Smart Card Data (Gaudette,P, Chapleau,R, and Spurr,T); How Smart Is Your Smart Card? Evaluating Transit Smart Card Data with Privacy Restrictions and Limited Penetration Rates (Erhardt,GD); Perspectives on Transit: Potential Benefits of Visualizing Transit Data (Stewart,C, Diab,E, Bertini,R, and El-Geneidy,A); BusViz: Big Data for Bus Fleets (Anwar,A, Odoni,A, amd Toh,N); Rail Transit Ridership: Station-Area Analysis of Boston’s Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Chen,S and Zegras,C); Use of Mobile Device Wireless Signals to Determine Transit Route-Level Passenger Origin–Destination Flows: Methodology and Empirical Evaluation (Mishalani,RG, McCord,MR, and Reinhold,T); Analysis of Grid Cell–Based Taxi Ridership with Large-Scale GPS Data (Nam,D, Hyun,K, Kim,H, Ahn,K, and Jayakrishnan,R); Toward a Demand Estimation Model Based on Automated Vehicle Location Moreira-Matias,L and Cats,D).
Transportation Research Record 2546 contains the following papers: Operational Schedule Flexibility and Infrastructure Investment: Capacity Trade-Off on Single-Track Railways (Dick,CT and Mussanov,D); Heterogeneous Valuation of Quality Dimensions of Railway Freight Service by Chinese Shippers: Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (Duan,L, Rezaei,J, Tavasszy,L, and Chorus,C); Washington State Short-Line Railroads: Case Study in Meeting 21st-Century Demands with 19th-Century Infrastructure (Sage,J, Eustice,JB, Casavant,K, and Herman,C); Field Experiments with Train Stopping Positions at Schiphol Airport Train Station in Amsterdam, Netherlands (van den Heuval,J); Model for Optimal Selection of Projects to Improve Running Time and Operating Cost Efficiency on Passenger Rail Corridors (Tang,H, Dick,CT, Caughron,BM, Feng,X, Wang,Q, and Barkan,CPL); Timetable Optimization for High-Speed Rail with Multiple Operating Periods: Solving Method Based on a Framework of Lagrangian Relaxation Decomposition (Zhou,W and Yang,X); Renewal and Development of Intercity Passenger Rail System: A Case of China (Ou,X, Zhang,G, and Chang,XY); What Happened to Speed? Scheduled Speeds and Travel Times of North American Passenger Trains, 1965 to 2015 (Allen,JG and Levinson,HS); Challenges and Opportunities in Implementation of Future California Rail Network (Levy,S, Faulkner,AA, and Sussman,JM); Bigger and Different: Beginning to Understand the Role of High-Speed Rail in Developing China’s Future Supercities (Wu,Q, Perl,A, and Sun,J); Research into Integrity of Glazing for Passenger Rail Equipment (Gordon,J, Llana,P, Severson,K, and Tyrell,D); Viability of Natural Gas in Fuel Cell Traction for Heavy Freight Locomotion: Economic, Efficiency, and Technology Factors (Lidicker,J, Rothschild,A, and Dunnebacke,L); Adaptive Fuzzy Planning of Optimal Speed Profiles for High-Speed Train Operation on the Basis of a Pareto Set (ShangGuan,W, Wang,J, Sheng,Z, Yu,XX, Cai,BG, and Wang,J); Two-Train Trajectory Optimization with a Green-Wave Policy (Wang,P and Goverde,RMP); Analysis of Collision Risk for Freight Trains in the United States (Liu,X); Fault Tree Analysis of Adjacent Track Accidents on Shared-Use Rail Corridors (Lin,CY, Saat,MP, and Barkan,CPL).
Transportation Research Record 2551 contains the following papers: Accuracy of Ice Melting Capacity Tests: Review of Melting Data for Sodium Chloride (Nilssen,K, Klein-Paste,A, and Wahlin,J); Superhydrophobic Coatings on Asphalt Concrete Surfaces: Toward Smart Solutions for Winter Pavement Maintenance (Arabzadeh,A, Ceylan,H, Kim,S, Gopalakrishnan,K, and Sassani,A); Optimizing Environmental Sensor Station Locations for Road Weather Management: Overview and a Generalized Modeling Framework (Singh,AK, Li,J, Murphy,M, and Walton,CM); Proactive Strategy for Variable Speed Limit Operations on Freeways Under Foggy Weather Conditions (Choi,S and Oh,C); Expanding the Road Weather Information System for Avalanche Support (Idell-Sassi,L, Stickel,JR, Murphy,M, and Carter,P); Development of a Sensor Platform for High-Accuracy Mapping of Roadway Lane Markings (Davis,B and Donath,M); Piecewise Multiple Linear Models for Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Prediction Under Effect of Winter Weather Events (Wang,C, Wang,Z, and Tsai,YC); Connected Vehicle Solution for Winter Road Surface Condition Monitoring (Linton,MA and Fu,L); Statistical Analysis for Assessing Highway Maintenance Level of Service (Adams,TM and Winkelman,B); Use of Social Media by Transportation Agencies for Traffic Management (Wojtowicz,J and Wallace,WA); Assessing Driver Speed Choice in Fog with the Use of Visibility Data from Road Weather Information Systems (McCann,K and Fontaine,MD); Modeling Effects of Precipitation on Vehicle Speed: Floating Car Data Approach (Stamos,I, Grau,JMS, Mitsakis,E, and Aifadopoulou,G); Chemical Melting of Ice: Effect of Solution Freezing Point on the Melting Rate (Wahlin,J and Klein-Paste,A); Design and Performance Monitoring of Snow-Supporting Structures for the Milepost 151 Avalanche near Jackson, Wyoming (Hewes,JT, Decker,R, Merry,S, and Strain,S); Energy-Regenerative Shock Absorber for Transportation Vehicles Based on Dual Overrunning Clutches: Design, Modeling, and Simulation (Liu,Y, Chen,W, Zhang,Z, and Hua,G); Fire Risk Assessment for Highway Bridges in South Korea (Kim,WS, Jeoung,C, Gil,H, Lee,I, Yun,SH, and Moon,DY).
Transportation Research Record 2555 contains the following papers: What Role Do Precrash Driver Actions Play in Work Zone Crashes? Application of Hierarchical Models to Crash Data (Liu,J, Khattak,A, and Zhang,M); Traffic Control at Access Points Within Alternating One-Way Operations (Finley,MD); Model Development for Use of Portable Traffic Signals in Conjunction with Pilot Car Operations at Two-Lane, Two-Way Rural Highway Work Zones (Schrock,SD, Patil,SS, and Fitzsimmons,EJ); Legibility of the Clearview Typeface and FHWA Standard Alphabets on Negative- and Positive-Contrast Signs (Garvey,PM, Klena,MJ, Eie,WY, Meeker,DT, and Pietrucha,MT, with discussion by Bullough,JD); Work Zone Crash Cost Prediction with a Least Median Squares Linear Regression Model (Cheng,Y, Parker,ST, Ran,B, and Noyce,DA); Safety Effects of Portable End-of-Queue Warning System Deployments at Texas Work Zones (Ullman,GL, Iragavarapu,V, and Brydia,RE); Variable Speed Limit Study Upstream of an Indiana Work Zone with Vehicle Matching (Mekker,MM, Remias,SM, Bunnell,WA, Krohn,DW, Cox,ED, and Bullock,DM); Impact of Advisory Signs on Vehicle Speeds in Highway Nighttime Paving Project Work Zones (Gambatese,J and Zhang,F); Portable Traffic Signals in Conjunction with Pilot Car Operations at Two-Lane, Two-Way Rural Highway Work Zones (Schrock,SD, Patil,SS, and Fitsimmons,EJ); Assessment of an Adaptive Driving Beam Headlighting System: Visibility and Glare (Bullough,JD, Skinner,NP, and Plummer,TT); Road Lighting Effects on Bicycle and Pedestrian Accident Frequency: Case Study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Niaki,MSN, Fu,T, Saunier,N, Miranda-Moreno,LF, Amador,L, and Bruneau,JF); Safety Effects of Street Illuminance at Urban Signalized Intersections in Florida (Wei,F, Wang,Z, Lin,PS, Hsu,PP, Ozkul,S, Jackman,J, and Bato,M); Guidelines for Traffic Control Devices at Changes in Horizontal Alignment (Brimley,BK, Carlson,PJ, Hawkins Jr,HG, Himes,S, Gross,F, and McGee,H); Updated Model for Advance Placement of Turn and Curve Warning Signs (Hawkins Jr,HG, Brimley,BK, and Calson,PJ).
Transportation Research Record 2556 contains the following papers: Roundabouts as a Form of Access Management (Michalaka,D, Xu,R, Page,JJ, Steiner,RL, Washburn,S, and Elefteriadou,L); Statistical Analysis of Effects of Access, Traffic Exposure, and Frontage Parameters on Sale Price of Commercial Real Property in Kansas (Huffman,C and Longhofer,SD); Site-Specific Safety Analysis of Diverging Diamond Interchange Ramp Terminals (Claros,B, Edara,P, and Sun,C); Passing Behavior on Two-Lane Roads in Real and Simulated Environments (Llorca,C and Farah,H); Critical Assessment of Methodologies for Operations and Safety Evaluations of Freeway Turbulence (van Beinum,A, Farah,H, Wegman,F, and Hoogendoorn,S); Maintenance of Traffic for Innovative Geometric Design Work Zones (Brown,H, Cope,T, Khezerzadeh,A, Sun,C, and Edara,P); Optimization of Variable Approach Lane Use at Isolated Signalized Intersections (Zhou,H, Ding,J, and Qin,X); Impact of Exit Ramp Geometric Treatments at Diverging Diamond Interchanges on Queue Spillback (Warchol,S, Schroeder,BJ, and Cunningham,C); Examination of the Free-Flow Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Roads (Garcia-Jiménez,ME, Pérez-Zuriaga,AM, Llopis-Castelló,D, Camacho-Torregrosa,FJ, and Garcia,A).
Transportation Research Record 2557 contains the following papers: Signal Timing for Diverging Diamond Interchanges: Fundamentals, Concepts, and Recommended Applications (Cunningham,C, Schroeder,BJ, Phillips,S, Urbanik,T, Warchol,S, and Tanaka,A); High-Resolution Field Evaluation of Radar-Based Dilemma Zone Protection System (Abbas,MM, Wang,Q, Higgs,B, Sarabi,DZ, Machiani,SG, and Mladenovic,MN); Impact of Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory on Unsignalized Side-Street Traffic (Radivojevic,D, Stevanovic,J, and Stevanovic,A); Innovative Method for Remotely Fine-Tuning Offsets Along a Diverging Diamond Interchange Corridor (Kim,SK, Warchol,S, Schroeder,BJ, and Cunningham,C); Multimodal Data Analytics Comparative Visualization Tool: Case Study of Pedestrian Crossing Design (Khoshmagham,S, Head,KL, Feng,Y, and Zamanipour,M); Understanding the Factors Underlying Variation in Detection Errors of Video- and Thermal-Imaging Cameras (Yang,J, Zuo,B, and Kim,SH); Performance Analysis of Centralized and Distributed Systems for Urban Traffic Control (Chow,AHF and Sha,R); Predictive–Tentative Transit Signal Priority with Self-Organizing Traffic Signal Control (Moghimidarzi,SB, Furth,PG, and Cesme,B); Efficient Priority Control Model for Multimodal Traffic Signals (Zamanipour,M, Head,KL, Feng,Y, and Khoshmagham,S); Safety-Related Guidelines for Time-of-Day Changes in Left-Turn Phasing (Davis,GA, Moshtagh,V, and Hourdos,J); Characterizing Emergency Vehicle Preemption Operation with High-Resolution Traffic Signal Event Data (Chou,CS and Nichols,AP).
Transportation Research Record 2558 contains the following papers: Arterial Progression Optimization Using OD-BAND: Case Study and Extensions (Arsava,T, Xie,Y, and Gartner,NH); Connected Vehicle–Based Adaptive Signal Control and Applications (Feng,Y, Zamanipour,M, Head,KL, and Khoshmagham,S); Managing User Delay with a Focus on Pedestrian Operations (Sobie,C, Smaglik,E, Sharma,A, Kading,A, Kothuri,S, and Koonce,P); Automated Turning Movement Counts for Shared Lanes: Leveraging Vehicle Detection Data (Santiago-Chaparro,KR, Chitturi,M, Bill,A, and Noyce,DA); Use of High-Resolution Signal Controller Data to Identify Red Light Running (Lavrenz,SM, Day,CM, Grossman,J, Freije,R, and Bullock,DM); Detector-Free Signal Offset Optimization with Limited Connected Vehicle Market Penetration: Proof-of-Concept Study (Day,CM and Bullock,DM); Assessing Longitudinal Arterial Performance and Traffic Signal Retiming Outcomes (Lavrenz,SM, Day,CM, Smith,WB, Sturdevant,JR, and Bullock,DM); Optimal Cycle-Length Formulas for Intersections With or Without Transit Signal Priority (Wolput,B, Christofa,E, and TampèreCMJ); Multimodal Intelligent Traffic Signal System Simulation Model Development and Assessment (Ahn,K, Rakha,HA, Kang,K, and Vadapat,G).
Reliable data provides the foundation upon which transportation professionals base their work. Without reliable data, they are unable to develop solid conclusions and recommendations for a myriad of projects and applications. One of the main forms of data that transportation professionals rely upon in long-range planning projects, more specifically Transportation Master Plans, is origin-destination (O-D) survey data. This data typically identifies where people are traveling, why and how often and helps determine what transportation system changes and improvements will be required to accommodate transportation needs in the future. Oxford County is located in Southwestern Ontario. It covers 2,040 square kilometres (788 square miles) with a 2016 census population of 110,862 persons. The County has five (5) rural municipalities and three (3) urban municipalities and is responsible for the management and maintenance of 614 kilometres of road. In 2016, Oxford County initiated an update to their Transportation Master Plan (TMP). An O-D survey was carried out as part of this update. Oxford County is progressive from the perspectives of sustainability and investment in new and emerging technologies. Instead of utilizing traditional survey methodologies (direct interview, mail out/mail back) to collect the O-D data, the decision was made to use Media Access Control (MAC) address capture technology to record the survey data since use of this technology is in line with the County’s initiatives. The data was collected using Miovision Scout data collection cameras with connected adapters. The adapters captured MAC addresses from Wi-Fi enabled devices within a 30 metre (+/-) radius of each unit. The Scout camera units collect traffic count data concurrent to the MAC address data capture. Use of this technology permitted more data to be collected over a longer period of time at a lower cost. Furthermore, the MAC technology required significantly fewer human resources and allowed data to be collected in a passive manner that did not impact traffic operations or rely on people’s willingness to participate in a survey. With fewer human resources needed within the road allowance, there are also safety benefits to using this technology.
The City of Red Deer wishes to develop a multimodal future. The objective is for all residents – be they on foot, bicycle, in transit or in private vehicle - feel comfortable and safe to travel by their chosen mode. The aim is to provide the space, the design and budget for all modes to travel but without unduly delaying motor vehicles. This is a big task. To shift the space allocations in the public realm to create this future requires deliberate action for the users on the street. To better target the action, an analysis tool was devised. As an example of the utility of an index, the Canadian Forest Service devised the Fire Weather Index (FWI) to establish a common understanding across forest types and topography of relative ‘Fire Weather’. Likewise, it is well understood how motor vehicle Level of Service (LOS) is used and applied to city streets. Similarly, a new measuring tool envisaged providing an objective ‘user view’ to gather what is present which helps or hinders the user from achieving their objective – travel along a corridor or through an intersection – in a consistent manner. It was determined that an easy and transparent spreadsheet measuring quantitative elements by mode and by segment is likely to have the greatest utility, support across departments and potentially be useful in engaging with the public to demonstrate decision choices. As developed, the Multimodal Transportation Index (MTI) measures both the a) current status of a transportation corridor and b) the proposed addition of component parts (elements) users of each mode of transportation require for safety, comfort, quality and connection. It can be used before and after the design process as well as before and after the construction phases. The presence of the elements contributes to a score of A-F, much like conventional LOS, which will encourage the safe and comfortable use of each space to connect to other parts of the city on quality infrastructure. Users of each mode are thereby encouraged to travel these routes with a better experience which translates to higher mode uptake and continued use of the investment. The critical elements form a basis for the planning and design for each space to provide high quality service to city residents and visitors. The elements are a list including the presence of dual para-ramps, boulevard setbacks from back of curb to vehicle travel, presence of street trees, wayfinding, bicycle facility type and appropriate application to road design speed, transit shelters and their amenities, transit travel time and frequency (head way) and pavement quality, among many others. It is anticipated that this will lead to achieving many of the co-benefits and policy goals listed in the City of Red Deer’s Environmental Masterplan, and the Mobility Playbook; and advances the objectives of the Multimodal Transportation Plan and the Neighbourhood Planning and Design Standards, which the City of Red Deer has set. The MTI is a calculated and measured approach towards using the right of way to provide safe travel options, to a standard (A-F) which is acceptable by council and as a benchmarking tool measuring change over time. A series of examples of street views and scores will be presented and well as proposed designs and the resulting MTI score change.
A Canadian city was planning a set of future transit service modifications, including introduction of new bus routes. These would be accommodated at a future neighbourhood bus terminal, with an adjacent park and ride lot. The site was chosen in part because high volumes of traffic currently pass by the location, providing a potential travel market for the new services. West of the site, the adjacent road climbs a hill with grades over 11%. The need for a new bus terminal access near the base of the steep hill has potential operational and safety problems during winter, including downhill stopping and uphill climbing from the bus terminal. These challenges required exploration of several design options, including traffic control, modified intersection configurations, and revised alignments and profiles for the collector road. These options were evaluated with City stakeholder input, considering operational, safety, complete streets and travel time objectives. The final functional design was a combination of a modified profile for the collector road, with a traffic signal introduced at the new access point. This paper describes the design objectives, existing conditions, resulting challenges, options developed, and the considerations that led to selection of the functional design for the bus terminal site access.