An efficient transport system is a catalyst for socio-economic advancement of all nations, there is hardly any town or city that can function efficiently and effectively without adequate, reliable, safe and affordable transport network (Pius et al. 2017). Rail transport system has played a significant role in nations’ development and the encouragement of regional cooperation. It is among the critical national infrastructures needed for economic and technology growth. Without transport network, many towns and cities would be severely inadequate in ability to compete with others. Given the fact that it is the duty of rail operators to plan and design profitable rail networks and support it with robust strategy for effective service delivery that meets service user needs and expectations, to encourage repeat patronages and sector sustainability (Nwaogbe, Pius & Dashe, 2017). This paper main aims are to measure the level of service provided by the Nigerian Railway Cooperation (NRC) across the nations’ rail network. In a view to suggest possible areas of improvement. The objective is to evaluate six service dimensions; to capture what the commuters are thinking about their services. Before now, Nigeria’s rail network has received very little attention from the scholars and the rail operators are focusing on the tick boxes exercise for regulator and government gratification, instead of them striving to provide a better service experience and become passenger centric operators in their strategies for loyalty and repeat usage (Pius, Nwaogbe & Chad, 2017).
In recent years, the introduction of light rail transit (LRT) has been adopted by many US cities as a means to revitalize urban areas. It is not clear whether original residents are the ones benefiting from this place based revitalization. A common argument in favour of LRT construction is that LRT connects workers to firms. This study will search for evidence as to whether this contention is true. The first contribution of this paper will be to employ panel census tract data to estimate the neighbourhood change effects of LRT stations. The rapid proliferation of LRT construction and proposals in US cities inspire an urgency for such estimates. Analysis reveals that LRT stations are associated with significantly improved local labour market outcomes. The introduction of light rail also pushes up local home values and spurs the arrival of more affluent populations, accordant with gentrification concerns. The quasi-random introduction of LRT transit systems in three US cities over the 2000-2013 period is used to estimate causal neighbourhood effects.
The relationship between city expansion and non-motorized transport especially walking and cycling cannot be overemphasized in the world in general and in Ethiopia in particular. Cities in Ethiopia particularly Addis Ababa is vulnerable to transportation service, planning and management problem. The occurrence of transportation chaos in Addis Ababa has become an everyday event with severe consequences mostly felt by the urban poor. The above fact tells us that it is wise to invest in non-motorised transport (NMT) infrastructure especially walking and cycling that benefits the public mostly the urban poor. The study evaluate the existing condition of three NMT road segment located on Bole sub-city Addis Ababa, in terms of variety of NMT characteristics like safety, accessibility and environment. Furthermore, inadequate NMT infrastructure has been also identified. Finally, crucial recommendation of improvement has been forwarded so as to solve the issues related to safety, accessibility and environment of NMT infrastructure issues. The study has been done by defining important NMT variables under three categories. Variables like pedestrian walk way, bicycle lane and crossing facilities were classified under independent variable. Variables like policy, strategy, regulation, administration and management were considered as moderators. Variables like safety, accessibility and environment were classified under the dependent variable.
As party to the 2016 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement, Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. According to Physical Flow Accounts, Canada’s total GHG emissions output, including all industries and households, was 755.1 Megatonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) in 2015. Aviation – both domestic and international flights – contributed 2.5% of this total, emitting 18.7 Mt CO2 eq in 2015. Domestic aviation emissions from both domestic and foreign airlines operating in Canada fall under the Paris Agreement, whereas emissions from international aviation fall under the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). CORSIA’s goal is to achieve carbon-neutral growth from 2020 onward. Transport Canada has identified several measures that are expected to help reduce GHG emissions from aviation. These measures include fleet renewal, more efficient air operations, improved air traffic management and alternative fuels, among others. Not only would a reduction in GHG emissions by air carriers help Canada towards its commitments under the Paris Agreement, but it may also be in the carriers’ financial interest to become as fuel-efficient as possible to reduce operating expenses. This paper examines Canadian air services beginning with a review of the current trends in airline passenger traffic along with total emissions output. It then investigates how two types of GHG reduction measures – fleet renewal and more efficient air operations – offer an opportunity for Canadian air carriers to see both environmental and financial benefits.
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the paradigms underlying cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multicriteria decision aiding (MCDA) and to compare the two methodologies through the prism of sustainable transportation. We first describe the different types of rationality in decision-aiding, followed by a brief presentation of the decision-aiding methodologies. Subsequently, based on a literature review, we summarize their strengths and weaknesses as identified by the various authors and conclude with a short discussion regarding some issues specific to transportation.
Companies across the world are investing in the research and development of hyperloop technologies. This paper specifically addresses a hyperloop within the framework of Canada’s future transportation system. In this context, information relating to the endeavours of Virgin Hyperloop One and TransPod is perhaps most relevant, as these two companies outwardly appear to have prioritized a Canadian route. Given the nascent status of this industry, the body of literature is relatively small. This paper approaches a hyperloop from a regulatory perspective, with respect to potential Environmental Assessment (EA) requirements. It assumes that a hyperloop will be demonstrated to be technically feasible, and that the political and social will exist to create favourable conditions for its implementation in Canada. These are assumptions that will need to be proven or otherwise, but which exceed the scope of this paper.
The transportation industry moves astonishing volumes and varieties of products for diverse industries. To meet these widely diverging needs, the transportation industry employs a various processes. Each product is moved utilizing one of these processes or a blend of two. The goal of this paper is to describe these general processes and the types of products moved by each. Examples from the trucking industry will be provided, though the processes are generalized and applicable to all other transport modes. Once presented in the first section, it will be shown that the processes form a continuum – thus a taxonomy for transportation.
The movement of people and goods is critical to any economy, especially in a trade-reliant country like Canada. As such, there is a need to continually assess and monitor the transportation system which requires quality statistical information. The transportation statistics program at Statistics Canada measures various aspects of activities related to the movement of people and goods and covers: Transportation by air statistics based on surveys related to the movement of aircraft, passengers and cargo by air for both Canadian and foreign air carriers operating in Canada; Transportation by rail statistics based on surveys related to rail transportation of passengers and cargo in Canada and between the United States and Canada; Transportation by road statistics based on surveys relating to road transportation of passengers by bus and cargo by trucks in Canada. This paper describes the methodology innovations that were implemented for six financial and operating transportation surveys. Section 2 presents the transportation statistics program and the remaining sections detail the innovations that the financial and operating survey redesign bring to the sampling frame creation, sampling, collection, data processing, estimation and dissemination methodologies.
The physical movement of goods plays a key role in many market transactions, making the transportation system an intrinsic component of any economy. As a trade-reliant nation with its population spread over a vast landscape, Canada is particularly dependent on an effective transportation system. And, in order to assess the national transport system and its ability to move freight, quality statistical information is required. A Freight Analysis Framework is a planning tool for assessing the transport network and its capacity to meet projected demand. The principal data for such a framework is a set of commodity origin-destination flows by mode. Statistics Canada is constructing a carrier-based Canadian Freight Analysis Framework (CFAF) for Transport Canada. In order to do so, a set of commodity flow estimates by weight as well as by origin and destination is required for each mode. However, the agency’s Trucking Commodity Origin Destination (TCOD) survey currently excludes own-account or private trucking as well as smaller for-hire establishments with annual revenues below $1.3 million. As part of a TCOD redesign, coverage is expanding by lowering the revenue threshold to include smaller carriers and by capturing the trucking activity of businesses assigned to other industries (i.e., own-account or private trucking).To expand coverage however, there is a need to understand the role of smaller trucking operators and the extent to which they work as dedicated sub-contractors for larger for-hire or private carriers. To aid in this understanding, Statistics Canada is conducting a study of small motor carriers of freight consisting of three components: a review, a nature of business survey and consultations with the industry. This research paper reports on the methods used for the survey. After a brief overview of the for-hire trucking industry, the paper uses the sample frame to provide a profile of smaller trucking establishments. It concludes by discussing the next steps in the study.
As more jurisdictions look for innovative ways and products to enhance median and roadside safety, High Tension Cable Barrier (HTCB) stands out as the latest product that delivers on safety, cost, and ease of maintenance. HTCB is unique in that it can accommodate hits from either side, making it an attractive choice for transportation agencies in order to reduce cross-median collisions and collision severity. Highway agencies and designers are tasked with the challenges of learning how to implement HTCB appropriately, both alone and in conjunction with traditional guardrail. This paper examines the particular case of Highway 16A in the Province of Alberta and how HTCB was implemented in a 10 km section to not only reduce collision frequencies and severity, but also how a relatively new and proprietary product was implemented. The paper discusses how horizontal and vertical geometry, cross-section, connections to existing bridgerail, and length of need all played their respective roles in determining the length and location of HTCB. Highway 16A is a busy commuter highway, a remnant of the previous Trans-Canada Highway between Edmonton and Jasper. It now serves the cities of Spruce Grove and Edmonton and carries over 30,000 vehicles a day. The highway is 4-lane divided with a very narrow depressed median and no existing barriers of any kind. As a result, Highway 16A experienced a large number of cross-median collisions. Alberta Transportation (AT) sought to install HTCB as a way to reduce these collisions while allowing for ease of maintenance operations within the narrow median. Designers at Morrison Hershfield (MH), while familiar with traditional roadside barrier systems, conducted research on how to implement HTCB using AT’s Design Bulletin #75/2012 and HTCB (and Rumble Strips) Practices & Guidelines presentation. The design had to consider many factors, such as horizontal and vertical geometry of each carriageway, superelevation, grade differences across the median, accommodating left-turn storage lanes, median openings and connections to existing bridgerail and strong-post W-beam. Construction had its own unique challenges, working with a contractor who was relatively new to HTCB, and AT’s requirements for working on a very busy highway, as well as the learning curve associated with installing a proprietary product. Overall, the HTCB installation went smoothly as AT’s Project Manager, the designers, and contractor all worked together to complete the project. The finished project is a 10 km section of highway with new HTCB that is aesthetically compatible and provides a higher level of safety than before.
Most Canadian urban areas promote a more sustainable future in their long-range transportation master plans (TMPs). This applies to all urban travel, but most TMPs consider goods movement at a high level, if at all. To address this gap, the City of Ottawa commissioned a study of goods movement. The study will inform Ottawa’s upcoming transportation policies and plans. Other urban areas have developed stand-alone goods movement strategies. These strategies typically look at current and long-term issues, and recommend packages of operational, regulatory, technological, planning and policy solutions that can be implemented over time. Many of the packages consider sustainability but, again, at a high level. Ottawa’s goods movement study looks at a range of opportunities, but it differs from other Canadian goods movement studies in that it focuses on sustainability and ways to transition to a sustainable transportation future. The Ottawa study does not recommend solutions but instead presents opportunities that the City can consider in its policies and plans. It should be noted that the study looked at goods movement within, to and from Ottawa, although it did not look at interregional goods movement through the city. The Ottawa study looks at how sustainability can be incorporated through short-term operational and traffic management improvements and through long-term policies and land use planning. It looks at how goods movement is incorporated in today’s sustainability initiatives, such as Complete Streets rehabilitations of urban streets and intersections, along with some of the current challenges faced by couriers and truckers and how these might be resolved. The study considers the potential role of emerging goods movement technologies, such as connected and autonomous vehicles, in promoting sustainable urban goods movement in the future, while accounting for the inherent uncertainties associated with industry uptake of new technologies and trends such as e-commerce and the growing role of independents in urban deliveries. Finally, the study looks at how these actions can be integrated to transition to a more sustainable future over time, while recognizing market realities, the need to maintain economic sustainability and the uncertainties associated with emerging technologies. The paper speaks to all these aspects by providing an overview of the Ottawa study’s goals, how its focus on sustainability differs from other Canadian urban goods movement studies, how economic/business and other realities must be considered, and how current opportunities and emerging technologies can set the stage for long-term sustainability initiatives.
Geocell reinforcement at the base and subbase courses of pavement structures is one of the recent developments in the field of geosynthetics soil reinforcement. Geocells are honeycomb-shaped three-dimensional materials usually made from polymeric alloys and High-Density Polyethylene. Geocells improve the modulus and strength of the reinforced soil composite and durability of the road structure by providing lateral confinement, wider load distribution and also through a semi-rigid slab or beam effect. Novel Polymeric Alloy (NPA) is the latest technology used as geocell material which provide increase tensile strength, higher modulus and creep resistance compared to the geocells made from other types of material. Geocells can be used in both paved and unpaved roads contributing to the sustainability of the project by reducing the overall thickness of the pavement structure and decreasing the amount of virgin aggregate required. This in turn decreases the environmental footprint of the project and reduces the overall construction cost. Over the past decade a number of roads (paved and unpaved) have been constructed in Canada using the NPA geocell reinforcement. This paper discusses the current state of the practice in designing pavement structure with geocells. Few projects designed with geocell reinforcement are also discussed in detail to provide insight into the challenges faced during construction, long-term performance of the geocell-reinforced pavement structure and contribution of the geocell in each project to reduce environmental footprint and construction cost of the projects. In summary geocells have enabled the owners to save on the construction cost and lower the CO2 emission associated with the construction while improving the pavement performance and reducing pavement distresses.
A 14-kilometre-long section of Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement along Southwest Anthony Henday Drive (SWAHD) in Edmonton, Alberta with was opened to traffic in 2006. Since opening, the roadway has experienced a significant increase in traffic volume. The PCC pavement consists of a doweled jointed plain concrete and presently the performance of the pavement is poor relative to expectations of a longer life pavement. The condition of the pavement is fair to poor, with smoothness (ride quality) a major concern. The pavement exhibited joint sealant loss soon after construction and, six years after construction, major rehabilitation activities were undertaken to address various areas exhibiting distresses and ride quality issues. The completed rehabilitation activities included partial and full depth panel replacement, cross stitching of longitudinal cracks, dowel bar placement at mid-panel transverse cracks, slab jacking, and diamond grinding. Despite the rehabilitation activities, ride quality has continued to be an issue and ongoing maintenance activities have been required to address cracked panels, drainage along the roadway, and joint resealing. Subsequently, additional investigations were undertaken in 2017. This paper presents the forensic methodology used to investigate the causes of the premature development of distresses and poor ride quality issues. Site inspections, geotechnical borehole drilling, pavement coring, ground penetrating radar (GPR) testing to determine the location of the dowel bars and presence of voids underneath the pavement, analysis of Laser Crack Measurement System (LCMS) data, historical pavement smoothness data, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) data, drainage analysis, profile analysis using LiDAR data, along with other analyses, were undertaken for this investigation. The results of the additional investigations are presented along with potential causes of the poor performance and recommendations for rehabilitation and rehabilitation sequencing.
Federally protected migratory birds (hereafter referenced as migratory birds) utilize almost every natural and man-made habitat found in Canada. Migratory birds, their eggs and nests are protected everywhere in Canada by the Migratory Birds Convention Act (MBCA) and its supporting Regulations. There is no regulatory provision to allow for limited take of migratory birds during activites that support the development, construction, maintenance and operation of transportation facilities. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), via the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), encourages proponents responsible for infrastructure and other sectors, where a risk of incidental take exists, to develop beneficial management plans. This Operational Guidance (OG) document is part of a series of documents which are intended to be used alone or in conjunction with other OG documents. It will provide guidance to assist the Canadian transportation and roadway sectors in minimizing the risk of not being compliant with the Act and Regulations. Guidance provided in this OG document is intended to be non-prescriptive and will allow for the flexible application of principles for a variety of contexts. OGs are intended to be utilized at Step 2 of the Risk Management Framework (RMF). Proponents undertaking bridge and culvert infrastructure improvement activities are encouraged to review the report titled “Beneficial Practices for Compliance with the Migratory Birds Convention Act and Regulations” (Transportation Association of Canada, 2019) prior to using and applying this OG document.
Federally protected migratory birds (hereafter referenced as migratory birds) utilize almost every natural and man-made habitat found in Canada. Migratory birds, their eggs and nests are protected everywhere in Canada by the Migratory Birds Convention Act (MBCA) and its supporting Regulations. There is no regulatory provision to allow for limited take of migratory birds during activites that support the development, construction, maintenance and operation of transportation facilities. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), via the Canadian Wildife Service (CWS), encourages proponents responsible for infrastructure and other sectors, where a risk of incidental take exists, to develop beneficial management plans. This Operational Guidance (OG) document is part of a series of documents which are intended to be used alone or in conjunction with other OG documents. It will provide guidance to assist the Canadian transportation and roadway sectors in minimizing the risk of not being compliant with the Act and Regulations. Guidance provided in this OG document is intended to be non-prescriptive and will allow for the flexible application of principles for a variety of contexts. OGs are intended to be utilized at Step 2 of the Risk Management Framework (RMF). Proponents undertaking bridge and culvert infrastructure improvement activities are encouraged to review the report titled “Beneficial Practices for Compliance with the Migratory Birds Convention Act and Regulations” (Transportation Association of Canada, 2019) prior to using and applying this OG document.
Federally protected migratory birds (hereafter referenced as migratory birds) utilize almost every natural and man-made habitat found in Canada. Migratory birds, their eggs and nests are protected everywhere in Canada by the Migratory Birds Convention Act (MBCA) and its supporting Regulations. There is no regulatory provision to allow for limited take of migratory birds during activites that support the development, construction, maintenance and operation of transportation facilities. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), via the Canadian Wildife Service (CWS), encourages proponents responsible for infrastructure and other sectors, where a risk of incidental take exists, to develop beneficial management plans. This report provides an overview of legislation, a primer on migratory bird biology, case studies to illustrate actions taken to reduce the risk of incidental take, as well as a synthesis of beneficial practices that aligns with the Act and Regulations. This report forms the first phase (Phase 1) of this project. It provides the foundation for carrying out the second phase (Phase 2) of the project which will involve the development of a national-level Canadian transportation and roadway sector-specific guidance on compliance with the MBCA and Regulations. Recommendations to suggest ways to carry out Phase 2 are presented in this report.
The Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD) test has been widely used in practice and reported to be successful in identifying hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixes that are prone to rutting and/or susceptible to moisture damage. This paper presents a comprehensive study aiming to offer informative references for pavement engineers to select modified asphalt materials with good moisture and rutting resistance. First, the impacts of these modifiers on the HWTD test results were investigated. Based on the degree of their improvement in the HWTD results, additives were classified into the following three grades: (1) the first grade including branched styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and Gilsonite; (2) the second grade including linear SBS, high-density polyethylene, and polyphosphoric acid; and (3) the third grade including asphalt rubber (AR) and terminal blend (TB) asphalt rubber. In addition, the effects of modifier content on the Hamburg performance of the asphalt mixes were studied. It was found that higher modifier dosages do not necessarily result in the improvement of Hamburg performance. The results show that an optimal content existed for most additives, whereas a poor-performance dosage range (10.0% - 18.0%) existed for crumb rubber content in the AR. Finally, based on the results of the various test materials, the roles of different properties of modified asphalt binders on the Hamburg performance were also investigated. The healing, adhesive, viscosity, and elastic properties (HAVE) of modified binders were found to play different roles: the healing property of modified asphalt binder is a necessary factor; the adhesive property is a fundamental factor; the viscosity has a maximum limitation (3.5 Pa s at 135 deg C); and the elastic property due to the modification is the determining factor in achieving good Hamburg performance of modified asphalt mixtures.
To lay the foundations for safe autonomous driving, detailed information about the current and upcoming weather conditions is needed. However, currently available wide-meshed weather data are insufficient to meet the necessary spatial and temporal resolution required. On the other hand economic constraints limit the extension of the observations network. The project presented in this paper explores to what extent vehicular sensor data may augment existing data sources to improve weather forecasting and nowcasting in general but for the road network in particular. This paper illustrates the limited applicability of raw sensor readings due to the impact of vehicle dynamics and a continuously changing environment. Subsequently, it investigates methods for filtering and adjustments to meet meteorological requirements. A preliminary, physically modelled algorithm focused on estimating a representative ambient temperature shows promising results in comparison to synoptic reference data. The paper closes with an analysis of further refinements and a continuous validation required as well as the need for further meteorological quantities that need to be integrated to complete a typical meteorological data collective.
Full-depth reclamation techniques present numerous advantages in pavement rehabilitation. Typically, a thick layer of stabilized or unstabilized reclaimed materials is left behind the recycling machine, which is used as the base layer consisting of these latter recycled asphalt pavement material (RAP). The compaction of the thick layer, especially when unstabilized, is particularly critical for adequate performance. In Quebec, the smooth drum compaction is often used to compact the reclaimed materials. Previous studies demonstrated the difficulties associated with the convenient compaction of the reclaimed materials through its entire thickness, especially the presence of a vertical compaction gradient. Sheep or pad foot compactors are two common compaction machines used to ensure good densification during primary compaction of recycled materials. A research project was initiated to document and quantify the effects of compaction conditions and equipment on the response and performance of the reclaimed materials. An experimental embankment of reclaimed materials was built and divided in three sections compacted using different compaction procedures. Sheepsfoot roller, with and without vibration, was used in the first two sections, while the third section was compacted using a vibrating smooth drum roller. The density, stiffness and vertical density gradient were monitored with a nuclear gage, dynamic cone penetrometer and light weight deflectometer tests. Grain-size analysis was also performed on all experimental sections. The use of vibration along with Sheepsfoot roller improved both density and mechanical response of the compacted layer significantly. The penetration and density tests also revealed a significant difference in compaction throughout the thick layer of reclaimed materials. Using the sheepsfoot provided a stiffer base layer, and the smooth drum resulted in a vertical density gradient. Finally, significant differences in the grainsize distribution were found following the compaction when the sheepsfoot compactor was used.
This paper presents case studies of two recently completed pedestrian-cyclist underpasses projects in Canada – the Fermor Avenue underpass located in Winnipeg, Manitoba and the Kingsclear First Nation (KFN) underpass located in KFN, New Brunswick. These projects are evidence that pedestrian-cyclist underpasses can be successfully implemented, despite their generally negative reputations, provided that user comfort and safety remain at the forefront throughout the design process. Crossing under the TransCanada Highway, the Fermor underpass is a 6.0m wide x 3.0m high cast-in-place concrete box structure constructed over two years in two stages. The structure type was selected following a conceptual design study comparing underbridge pathway, overpass, and underpass options. The final design features long and comforting sightlines along its approach pathways and is well lit with attractive vandal resistance lighting fixtures allowing users to completely see through to the other side of the 37m long underpass. The box structure entrances feature 17m long cantilevered cast-in-place concrete headwalls complete with aesthetic treatments – the walls are constructed perpendicular to the box structure to avoid the ‘funnelling-in’ sensation typically associated with these structures. While the overall cost of the Fermor structure and associated works will not be insignificant – and possibly much more than many jurisdictions are able to spend on a similar structure– successful underpasses can be constructed economically and rapidly as evidenced by the KFN underpass project. Crossing under the high-speed Highway NB-102 which bisects the community of KFN, the KFN underpass is a 3.0m wide x 3.0m tall precast concrete box structure which developed from a conceptual level to substantially constructed and opened to traffic in under three months. The structure was built in response to a fatal vehicular-pedestrian strike in September 2018 after numerous years of unsuccessful lobbying by the Community to lower the speed-limit along Highway NB-102. The structure was operational before the end of 2018. The project was spearheaded by the Community in partnership with their Joint Venture with significant labour (over 40%) provided by community members. The project works included the 32m long structure featuring vandal resistance lighting fixtures and attractive precast concrete block wingwalls, 100m of paved active-transportation pathways complete with landscape lighting, and a security system with a direct feed to the nearby KFN Band Hall. Constructed rapidly and at a minimal cost, this underpass will have a significant impact on the Community.