Les panneaux d’affichage dynamique de la vitesse sont utilisés dans plusieurs provinces et territoires du Canada. Ils permettent aux conducteurs de voir leur vitesse, habituellement affichée à côté du panneau indiquant la limite de vitesse permise. Ces dispositifs sont destinés à faire prendre conscience aux conducteurs des limites de vitesse en affichant en temps réel la vitesse à laquelle ils conduisent leur véhicule. On a pu constater qu’ils sont efficaces peu de temps après leur installation. Les Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse ont été mises au point afin de définir les meilleures pratiques et de fournir des recommandations pour la conception et l’utilisation de panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse dans le contexte canadien pour diverses situations. Ces Lignes directrices permettent et favorisent l’uniformité dans l’utilisation des dispositifs dans tout le Canada; elles ont été rédigées dans le but de servir de document de référence détaillé complémentaire à utiliser conjointement avec le Manuel canadien de la signalisation routière (MCSR).
Les murs de soutènement de sol stabilisé mécaniquement (MSSM) sont depuis longtemps utilisés comme murs de soutènement, mais il n’est pas toujours évident de déterminer qui est l’ultime responsable de la conception, de l’assurance de la qualité, de la gestion des actifs et de la réparation des murs, ainsi que de la surveillance en service des murs déjà construits, en particulier en cas de problèmes importants relativement à la construction ou la tenue en service. Le présent guide offre aux maîtres d’ouvrages, ingénieurs, fournisseurs et entrepreneurs des MSSM des lignes directrices pratiques en matière de sélection, de conception, de construction et d’inspection de ces ouvrages, surtout dans le cadre de projets de travaux publics. Le guide a été élaboré sur la base de l’examen de la littérature existante, complétée par de l’information transmise par divers intervenants dans ce domaine. Il ne cherche pas à reproduire les très nombreuses lignes directrices de conception déjà publiées, ni l’information connexe. Il vise plutôt à mettre en évidence les diverses facettes de l’état actuel de la pratique au Canada et à proposer des modifications à la pratique actuelle afin de corriger certaines lacunes.
This manual has been developed to assist bridge owners by establishing inspection procedures and evaluation practices that meet the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). The manual has been divided into eight sections, with each section representing a distinct phase of an overall bridge inspection and evaluation program. This edition updates Sections 3: Bridge Management Systems; 4: Inspection; 6: Load Rating; and 7: Fatigue Evaluation of Steel Bridges.
This paper is based on research carried out for the recent Canadian Transportation Act Review. It examines the potential for short sea shipping in the Great Lakes / St. Lawrence region and considers international best practices and their relevance to Canada. We revisit a study undertaken by MariNova in 2005, which examined the potential for a short sea service between Halifax augmented by a brief analysis of a Montreal-Hamilton service. The analysis removes all of the constraints previously identified and re-considers its viability. The study also examines the potential role for government, in terms of promoting investment in short sea shipping. For the purposes of this paper we consider short sea shipping to include container, roll-on, roll-off (ro-ro), bulk as well as tug-and barge operations, providing interregional, intraregional and transhipment services. Our definition does not include passenger ferries, although a significant amount of commercial cargo is carried on most of Canada’s ferry services, particularly in the Newfoundland trade.
The Canadian Marine Pilots’ Association (CMPA) recommended in their submissions to the Canadian Transportation Act Review Panel (2014), and more recently to the Minister of Transport (2016) to consider the structure and administration of a new pilotage service when assessing its potential role in the Arctic. As such, the purpose of this paper is to explore pilotage for Canadian arctic waters in the context of the Northern Marine Transportation Corridors (NMTC) Initiative as a means of improving the safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. To aid the analysis, the CMPA’s principles of organizing pilotage in Canada will be relied upon: to protect the public interest (i.e., safety); rigorous standards for qualifying as a pilot; recognition of regional differences in operating conditions, navigational challenges, types of marine traffic and supporting infrastructure; and the responsiveness of pilotage to changes in technology, vessels, infrastructure, and traffic patterns. The paper will begin with a brief overview of the necessity of the service, followed by a discussion of how pilotage could be offered in the Canadian Arctic, including how the service relates to the NMTC Initiative, how it could be administered, and what qualifications would be required of an Arctic pilot.
Transportation is one of the major contributors of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions all over the world. In Canada, transportation was the second largest source of GHG emissions in 2014, accounting for 23% of the total emissions nationwide (Environment Canada, 2016). At the provincial level, 38.4% of British Columbia’s GHG emissions came from the transportation sector (BC Ministry of Environment, 2016). Such high levels of GHG emissions can be attributed to the large expansion of the urban road network and automobile dependency in North America. It is very important to shift the paradigm and start planning our communities in a way that hinder automobile dependency and encourage people to use more sustainable modes of transportation. The fused grid model consists of several 16-hectare modules (ideally four) that provide vehicular accessibility for local traffic only and keep non-local traffic on the periphery of the modules while maintaining full pedestrian/cyclists accessibility via central green spaces and off-road pathways as shown in Figure 1. Perimeter roads in the fused grid model facilitate through traffic as per the following spacing: 1) collectors at 400 metres; 2) minor arterials at 800 metres; and 3) arterials at 1,600 metres. The classification, spacing, and alignments of the perimeter roads can be designed according to the existing ground conditions and planned land use activities. The model also provides convenient local services and amenities within a five-minute walking distance by classifying blocks located between the perimeter one-way couplet roads as mixed land use zones. All intersections in the neighbourhood are controlled by roundabouts or three-way intersections to reduce the severity of collisions. Several studies have been found in the literature that address the benefits of the fused grid model in various aspects including: safety (Sun and Lovegrove, 2013), traffic performance (IBI Group, 2007), walkability (Frank and Hawkins, 2007), and transportation modal share (Masoud et al. 2017). While previous research like Frank and Hawkins (2007) and Masoud et al. (2017) has concluded that applying fused grid principles will result in more walking and less driving, which obviously would result in reducing GHG emissions, none of the previous research quantified by how much would GHG be reduced and thus quantifying its social benefits.
There is a growing recognition of the relationship between patterns of urban land use and related levels of air pollutants (Abotalebi and Kanaroglou, 2015; Dimatulac & Maoh, 2016; Glaeser, 2011; Giuliano & Agarwal, 2011; Tyler, 2000; Zimmerman & Wiginton, 2016). The connection in this relationship is evolving land use patterns in Canada which have helped to encourage and sustain a dependency on motor vehicles. Consequently, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada from the operation of motor vehicles increased by over one-third (35%) from 1990 to 2007, whereas the growth rate of population was less than 20% over the same period (Terefe, 2010). As party to the 2016 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s Paris Agreement, Canada has committed to reducing its GHG emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. With transport there are two complementary approaches to help reach this reduction target. The first is to encourage a modal shift (Gullo & Rosales, 2016). In the urban context, this shift would be from motor vehicles to public transit, relying on policy options of full-cost pricing (e.g. tolling) and related land-use planning (e.g. Smart Growth, intensification). The second approach is to encourage more fuel efficient fleets. For the road motor vehicle fleet, this would entail a higher proportion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). This study investigates the extent to which provincial vehicle registration files (VRF) can be used as a source of information to profile the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. Such a profile is critical as a benchmark going forward in order to track changes in the motor vehicle fleet composition. The paper begins with an overview of the relationship between transportation and urban form as well as the current contribution of the transportation sector to Canada’s GHG emissions. After describing the provincial VRFs, the paper defines a typology and then estimates the motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. We conclude with an examination of possible next steps in this effort.
Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is beneficial to both road owners and builders as it allows for significant raw material cost reduction, while potentially maintaining expected pavement service life. In upcoming decades, the recycling of previously recycled pavements (i.e. re-recycling) will become widespread. There is currently little technical knowledge on how or how many times asphalt pavement can be recycled while sustaining its expected durability. A novel asphalt binder aging method involving thin layers, heat, water spray, and UV radiation was developed to simulate approximately 20 years of in-service aging. The aged binder was recovered and blended with a softer, virgin binder. The blend was subjected to the next aging cycle. The process was repeated four times to simulate four recycling cycles (80 years) at 25 percent RAP addition. Three virgin binders were tested: standard Performance Grade (PG), one grade softer PG, and standard PG softened with paraffinic oil to one PG softer binder. Very detailed chemical and rheological analyses were performed to understand the impact of multiple recycling on irreversible chemical changes and evolution of rheological properties over the time. Results indicated that at moderate recycling levels, re-recycling is a viable option if an appropriate virgin binder is used.
The local geology of Prince Edward Island (PEI) primarily consists of material soft in nature that does not meet traditional aggregate specifications for the production of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) or other surface treatments. Therefore, roughly 95 percent of PEI’s HMA aggregates must be obtained and imported from off-Island sources. The associated work, expense, and environmental impact involved has raised the Department’s interest in the viability of asphalt recycling as a potential surface treatment option. As a trial basis, the Department committed to recycling ten, one-kilometer sections of road ranging in classification from Local to Collector roads in 2016. Acceptance or rejection of the work was largely based on the ability of the Contractor to achieve the specified penetration values of the modified binder and visual inspection for defects, as well as requirements for cross slope, grade and joint construction of the completed HIR. The HIR process was constantly monitored in the field by Department staff and although not forming part of the specifications, properties such as compaction, smoothness, and asphalt cement content were monitored. This paper is an account of our experiences and lessons learned from the recent application of HIR undertaken within the Province of PEI.
In the summer of 2015, Standard General Inc. – Calgary (SGIC), a subsidiary of Colas Canada Inc., introduced a new paving material called Betoflex® with the goal of resolving a recurring permanent deformation issue of two taxiways leading to Runway 17/35 at the Calgary Airport. The 2015 mixture was developed using the French Level 2 methodology to ensure that rutting resistance performance was achieved while maintaining good mixture workability to facilitate placement and compaction. In the spring/summer of 2016, Level 4 testing was performed on various Betoflex® mixtures that could potentially be used in the Calgary area. Level 4 testing was also performed on typical mixtures used in Calgary to benchmark Betoflex® with local mixtures. The Level 4 mix-design provides information for pavement design (stiffness modulus and fatigue resistance) using the French ALIZÉ-LCPC software. This paper provides an overall perspective of the engineering of asphalt mixtures to achieve “in-service” performance not only for durability (moisture resistance and rutting), but also for pavement design performance (stiffness modulus and fatigue resistance). It also discusses how the ALIZÉ-LCPC pavement design software uses Level 4 mix-design information to optimize pavement thicknesses and/or pavement performance reliability with respect to fatigue and large radius rutting.
Asphalt binder rejuvenator use in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been gaining momentum not only to delay aging of the asphalt binder, but also to permit higher levels of binder replacement from recycled materials. In this study, an HMA mixture was designed with approximately 35 percent binder replacement from Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Per specifications, a binder grade adjustment from PG 64-22 to PG 58-28 was required. The control mixture contained a neat PG 58-28 binder. Three experimental binders contained asphalt binder that were a blend of PG 64-22 plus rejuvenator materials to produce a PG 58—28 binder. HMA mixtures containing all four asphalt were tested for cracking and rutting resistance. The laboratory study indicated that the control and experimental mixes had no difference I rutting resistance. Under short-term aging, all three experimental mixtures with rejuvenators had improved cracking resistance as measured by the Illinois Flexibility Index Test (IFIT). Under long-term aging conditions, no significant difference was observed among the control and the three experimental mixtures according to the Disc-Shaped Compact Tension (DCT) test. However, IFIT testing of long-term aged specimens showed improved cracking resistance for two of the three experimental mixtures compared to the control.
Robustness refers to the ability of a road network to maintain its functionality intact when exposed to some perturbation. The concept of the Network Robustness Index (NRI) was explored by Scott et al (2006) and is defined as the difference in travel time on the road network between the existing condition and a simulated condition where the capacity of a link or segment is reduced or completely eliminated. Another previous work by Maoh et al (2012) examined the critical links along the Ontario major roads network and identified the segments that serve as the shortest path between the most origin-destination pairs. The work presented in this paper builds on these two previous studies and aims to examine the robustness of the critical segments of the Ontario trucking network, using a sensitivity analysis simulation approach. Six segments in particular were identified as the most critical, serving as the shortest paths between the largest number of origin and destination regions in the province of Ontario. Conditions that would be encountered with capacity and speed reductions due to roadworks were replicated and examined through a series of simulation models. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each of these critical segments, simulating increasing levels of capacity reductions. The NRI for the entire network, for each reduction scenario, was used as a measure to examine the robustness of Ontario’s major roads network.
WSP Parsons Brinckerhoff was hired by the Ministry of Transportation (MTO) to develop the Transport and Regional Economic Simulator of Ontario (TRESO), which is a passenger, freight and macroeconomic model covering the Province of Ontario with connections to the rest of the world. When complete, MTO staff will be able to use TRESO to evaluate a wide variety of policy, planning and investment scenarios that will affect major transportation corridors and systems across the entire province, as well as gateways to other North American locations. Commodity and freight modelling is a heavy emphasis within TRESO. Example scenarios of interest to MTO staff include the effects of: economic growth or decline, land-use changes (reflected by adding new firms within a region), changing use of E-commerce, changes to the rail and marine infrastructure and possible trade barriers on truck, rail and marine freight travel patterns. This paper presents an overview of two TRESO components - the commodity flow model and the long-distance truck model. The paper describes their inputs, a brief and high-level description of their structure, and some preliminary model results.
In Canada, Monteiro (2011) estimated that private trucking could account for as much as 85% of urban and 75% of inter-provincial truck movements. Therefore there is a clear need to better understand the role of private trucking in Canada. In particular, this research will inform the redesign of Statistics Canada’s Trucking Commodity Origin Destination (TCOD) survey to include private trucking. Filling this data gap will also improve the information available to Transport Canada and other policy makers that are grappling with an understanding of how to facilitate better freight movement. The paper begins with a selective review of literature on outsourcing in general and on the decision to operate own-account or private trucking specifically. Next, the data used for the analysis are presented along with some descriptive statistics. Then, a multivariate binary choice mode is specified in order to determine those factors statistically associated with the use of private trucking. Results from the model are examined in some detail before the paper concludes by pointing to future research needs.
The objective of this paper is to quantify the energy use and emissions related to the construction and operation of homes and transportation vehicles under a variety of scenarios, in the goal of defining the optimal development type and gaining a better understanding of the differences in sustainability between a few key scenarios. This work will enable urban planning policy recommendations to be made using local data on development types and likely outcomes.
Transit stop plays a very important role in improving transit system performance, maintaining traffic flow, passenger safety and security. In public transportation system, transit stops are the points which effect passenger perception towards transit system and can affect ridership. Till date, operational factors are given more importance; therefore, this paper discusses important passenger perception factors to be considered while planning a transit stop. Guidelines for street transit stop planning are available in several transit agency manuals and mathematical models. However, these guidelines do not report on every street transit factor, vary a lot from each other, and do not give rank-based factor list. Further, transit user opinion is also important to rank the amenities provided at transit stop. To answer these limitations, this paper report on expert and user opinion surveys, their population and sample size, instrument design, preliminary pilot survey findings and procedure for result analysis.
Technological advancements in the manufacturing of key Electric Vehicle (EV) components, especially the battery components, have renewed public’s interest in EV adoption. These advancements continue to improve the competitiveness of EV vehicles in terms of efficiency and ownership cost relative to gasoline-based vehicles. Governments around the globe are supporting policies that encourage the public as well as commercial entities to consider EV adoption on a more substantial scale. As such, governments and the private sector are responsible for the majority of global EV purchases as reported by Sierzchula (2014). Surprisingly, Canada’s global market share of EVs is only 0.4%. (IEA, 2017). This is significantly lower when compared to the European countries such as Norway which leads the globe with a share of 23.3% of global EV market (IEA, 2017). This paper offers new insights on factors influencing the acquisition of EV fleets in Canada. An online survey was designed to collect information from a random sample of 1,008 Canadian businesses and organizations that own and operate fleets. The collected data included organization’s general characteristics, existing fleet characteristics, future acquisition plans and EV fleet prospects. Vehicle fleets were classified into three main types: Cars, Pickup Trucks and Utility Vehicles. The survey tries to identify and understand the factors influencing the preferences and motivations of government and commercial entities as they contemplate adopting EVs in their automobile, pickup truck and utility fleets. The collected data will help identify the circumstances that will lead to higher adoption rates of EVs by these entities.
This paper introduced a transit stop planning tool for evaluating the spacing, location, and design of existing/new transit stop(s) using a transit stop rating index. The rating index accounts for various transit stop planning factors along with their interdependencies and the uncertainty associated with their ranges. As opposed to pure mathematical fundamentals and concepts, the principles of Fuzzy Set Theory (FST) were used. To account for the variability in service planning standards and guidelines among different transit agencies, the developed tool provides transit planners with the flexibility to select relevant factors and change their ranges from a set of recommended default values. For illustration, a random transit stop was evaluated using the developed tool to demonstrate the applicability of tool in practical situations. However, the factor values used for this illustrative example is only assumption based and does not show the real data. Further, the socio-economic and demographic data and ridership data is confidential and is not used in this paper.
Although by implementation of new principles, tools, and techniques infrastructure asset management has been improved and expanded rapidly, however, key concerns resulted by new economic, and sustainability issues, still must be taken into account to develop a comprehensive framework for public transit system management. Existing researches focus more in case of system performance, and level of service while physical indicators are often selected for this purpose and user convenience criteria are ignored. It is also common to see limited budgets with some funds to palliative cosmetic solutions. Many cities face an enormous pressure to handle the ever-growing traffic demand with a limited budget. At the same time, demanding for quality, comfort, and safety by travelers is increasing makes it more complicated to deal with the challenge to convince costumers to abandon the use of private automobile. The asset management of underground transit systems is a complex process as there are different types of facilities (rail cars, stations, tunnels, etc.) with completely different nature including many subcomponents geographically dispersed across a network. This leads to the need to use of a multi-facility multi-criteria assessment and decision making approach when it comes to the management of transit systems. The main objective of this study is to address recent issues should be covered by transit system management frameworks particularly focusing on subway systems to provide a safe, reliable and convenient service in the best interest of any metropolitan transit systems. Research proposes a framework to show how sub-models reflecting new issues could be attached to common transit agency approaches.
The EV market share has increased due to growing concern over environmental issues, financial incentives, and battery technology developments. Currently, EVs have sufficient driving range for intra-city trips where drivers can charge their vehicles at home or at the location of their activities. For inter-city travel, however, the trip distances are much longer and vehicles need to charge en-route to increase their driving range. Charging en-route is different from home-charging. Whereas in home-charging people can leave their vehicles plugged-in and come back later, en-route charging requires that drivers wait until the charging process is complete. Hence, it is critical to have fast chargers that cut down the charging time considerably and increase the charging coverage in order to promote EV penetration in the market. However, the high cost associated with constructing fast charging stations limits the number of charging stations that can be deployed and necessitates choosing their locations optimally. In this study, we solve a nonlinear complementarity problem to optimize the location of fast charging stations to maximize network coverage and minimize total network travel time. Results show that optimizing the location of charging stations can reduce the total travel time by up to 21% whereas unregulated expansion of the charging infrastructure can actually increase the total network travel time.