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Climate Change and Asphalt Binder Selection: Resilient Roads of the Future

mar, 11/03/2020 - 19:55
Climate Change and Asphalt Binder Selection: Resilient Roads of the Future
by Shafiee,M; Maadani,O; Murphy,E.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5109 - INTERNET


Adapting flexible pavements systems to the impact of climate change is a challenge in Canada. It is well-known that increasing temperatures and more frequent extreme heat events represent risks for the flexible pavements. These vulnerabilities may put additional pressure on Canadian transportation infrastructure and economy, as weather begins to deviate more and more from historic temperatures. Selecting suitable Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binders for pavement construction heavily depends on temperature conditions at the site. Hence, the goal of this research paper is to evaluate the impact of climate change on PG selection for several Canadian cities based on different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. In this study, projected temperature from ANUSPLIN datasets were used to obtain the necessary climatic parameters defined in the SUPERPAVE specifications. Projections of future PG changes highlighted the need for climate change adaptation policies and action sets in Canada.

Changes in Asphalt Binder Grade Due to Climate Change in Canada

mar, 11/03/2020 - 19:39
Changes in Asphalt Binder Grade Due to Climate Change in Canada
by Swarna,S; Hossain,K.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5108 - INTERNET


In recent years, average temperatures in Canada have been continuously increasing, owing to changes in the global climate. This can be attributed to a surge in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Climate scientists predict the trend to further aggravate in the near future. Pavement performance models show that changing climate will result in accelerated pavement deterioration. To mitigate pavement deterioration, various adaptation strategies have been suggested in the recent literature. One of these adaptation strategies is upgrading the superpave asphalt binder grade. It is well known that asphalt binder is highly sensitive to climate factors such as temperature and percent sunshine. Hence, reviewing asphalt binder grade is a vital step and that can help decelerate pavement deterioration. The goal of this work is to determine new asphalt binder grades in Canada based on the projected climate data. To achieve this goal, the analysis was carried out in four phases. In the first phase, statistically downscaled climate change models were gathered from the Climate Change model database. Then in the second phase, hourly temperatures were estimated using existing hourly data and state of the art estimation models for each day throughout the design period. Later in the third phase, using the estimated hourly temperature, average seven-day maximum pavement temperature and minimum pavement temperature are determined. Lastly, high-temperature grade (XX) and low temperature grade (YY) of an asphalt binder (PG XX – YY) are estimated using the average seven-day maximum and minimum pavement temperature respectively and tabulated in an easy-to-use format for application by the transportation agencies in Canada. Results reiterate the necessity of upgrading the asphalt binder grade in various provinces of Canada.

British Columbia Active Transportation Design Guide

lun, 11/02/2020 - 21:29
British Columbia Active Transportation Design Guide
by Skulmoski,J; Nytepchuk,N.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5107 - INTERNET


As part of the Province’s CleanBC plan to build a better future for all British Columbians, the British Columbia Active Transportation Design Guide helps transform how we get around in a way that preserves dignity, reduces pollution and leads to better health outcomes, while making communities cleaner and more liveable. The Design Guide is the first of its kind to be adopted by a provincial government in Canada. The Design Guide is a comprehensive set of planning and engineering guidelines offering recommendations for the planning, selection, design, implementation, and maintenance of active transportation facilities for communities of all sizes. It brings together engineering principles and best practices from the municipal, provincial, national, and international levels. The Design Guide incorporates theory, recent research, design concepts, best practices, new methodologies, and innovations to maximize the benefits of investing in active transportation infrastructure. Universal access is included as the fundamental design criteria for all active transportation infrastructure design, ensuring that any facility intended for walking, cycling or other human-powered transport can be accessed by individuals of all ages and abilities.

BC Highway Maintenance Contract Training Course

lun, 11/02/2020 - 21:04
BC Highway Maintenance Contract Training Course
by Palesch,D; Vaesen,J; Klatt,C; Robertson,P.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5106 - INTERNET


A training team, consisting of BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI) subject matter experts (SMEs) and a certified adult educator, worked closely to design, develop and deliver two days of in-class training to support MoTI staff and maintenance contractors to implement new 10-year provincial highway maintenance contracts. These contracts represent more than $400 million annually in highway maintenance work over 28 service areas across BC. Day 1 of the training was provided to MoTI staff and Day 2 was provided to both MoTI staff and successful contractors. The training was designed to ensure staff who administer the contract, and the maintenance contractors who implement it, have mutual understanding around contract specifications and the skills/tools to work effectively together. The team delivered the course in 26 of the MoTI’s services areas between October 2018 and October 2019.

B.C. Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure's Engineer and Geoscientist-In-Training Program

lun, 11/02/2020 - 20:33
B.C. Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure's Engineer and Geoscientist-In-Training Program
by Pilkington,I; Miska,E; Speed,B.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5105 - INTERNET


Since the 1960s, our Engineer-in-Training (EIT) Program has been bringing top-quality engineers into the BC Public Service. This succession planning and employee development program strategically considers forecasted vacancies and attrition within the engineering field and provides a detailed comprehensive training plan to develop qualified engineers. EITs are hired into permanent positions and are under-implemented until they obtain their professional designation and demonstrate that they have met all of the requirements to perform at the full working level. The 5-year program provides participants with early-career opportunities to experience the diversity of the Ministry in a series of challenging assignments. Working under the mentorship of a professional engineer, EITs follow a comprehensive training plan that guides them through onboarding, training, and clearly identifies competencies required in order to achieve the level of complexity, knowledge and experience required to qualify for their professional designation, as well as meet the competencies required of the ministry. Finally, it offers flexibility to work at several locations before determining where the EITs talents best suit our business needs. In 2016 the Ministry became an accredited employer with Engineering and Geoscientists of British Columbia. Participating EITs are registered on the employer’s recommendation, and their applications are expedited through the low-risk pathway towards professional registration. Program participation also provides opportunities for continued professional development for engineers through mentor and assessor roles. Mentors and assessors are provided with a number of tools and resources to support them in understanding competency requirements to validate and assess an EITs work experience. The program also partners with EGBC to identify assessors that review professional applications from EITs outside of the Ministry, supporting Canada’s transportation community. The Ministry has seen very successful retention rates of EITs that graduate out of the program and often become mentors for future EITs. Participants value innovation and creativity. Working together, this program allows for contribution to improved practices in the overall transportation community. The program also creates an opportunity to bring awareness to important issues surrounding diversity and inclusion including genderbased analysis plus, and guide our journey towards reconciliation with Indigenous peoples.

Assessment of the Accuracy of Bridge Evaluation Methods Outlined by CHBDC

lun, 11/02/2020 - 20:11
Assessment of the Accuracy of Bridge Evaluation Methods Outlined by CHBDC
by Salah Eddine,M; Arjomandi,K.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5104 - INTERNET


This paper presents a study investigating the accuracy of the two evaluation methods for the assessment of live load capacity factors of bridges as outlined in section 14 of the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC). The accuracy of the two methods are evaluated, compared, and their shortcomings and strengths are discussed in detail. The results show inconsistency between the general method of evaluation that utilizes load factors in comparison to the mean-load method that applies the statistical coefficients of load, resistance and the method of analysis. A series of numerical parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effect of dead to live load ratios on the accuracy of the results generated through using the code load and resistance factors. The results are further discussed through their application to a major long span case study bridge in the Province of New Brunswick.

Alternative Reinforcement Products in the Design of Concrete Structures - Durability Performance

lun, 11/02/2020 - 18:11
Alternative Reinforcement Products in the Design of Concrete Structures - Durability Performance
by Hudecek,M; Skabar,K; El-Hacha,R.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5103 - INTERNET


The presented work focuses on performance evaluation of concrete beams reinforced in flexure with several different types of rebars. This research takes a holistic approach and is intended to assist engineers, designers, and asset owners with making informed decisions when selecting appropriate reinforcement in a variety of concrete structure applications. Selection of a suitable type of a corrosion resistant rebar is a complex process and depends on not only initial cost and maintenance but also the overall performance of the structural member. While research examining individual types of advanced reinforcing materials have been conducted in the past, rigorous evaluations of multiple different types of materials tested simultaneously under comparable conditions are rare. Therefore, this research investigated the durability performance of concrete beams reinforced with different types of internal flexural rebars, metal-based and non-metal-based materials, including Fibre Reinforced Polymer (Basalt, Carbon and Glass), Martensitic Micro-Composite Formable Steel, and stainless steel, in addition to the conventional uncoated black steel for comparison purposes. The test specimens represented a bridge parapet and were exposed to identical harsh environmental conditions in a state-of-the-art climate chamber that simulated extended periods of exposure. In total, twenty-eight reinforced concrete beams were tested for ultimate flexural capacity. All beams were pre-cracked until reaching service conditions and kept loaded with a sustained load of 40% of their ultimate carrying capacity. Twenty-one beams were subjected to severe environmental conditions and subjected to 195 accelerated freeze-thaw cycles (equivalent to five years of real-life exposure) over a period of two months combined with spraying with a 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) rich water solutions representing accelerated exposure to traffic spray zones. The duration of each cycle was eight hours with temperature varying from -34°C to +34°C with a relative humidity of 75% for temperatures above +20°C. The remaining seven beams were kept at normal ambient temperature of 22-24°C and served as control specimens for comparison purposes. The beams were designed to develop similar flexural capacity and their structural performance is descried in detail considering the different nature of the reinforcing materials. The following categories were evaluated:cracking patterns at service loads,cracking patterns at ultimate loads,ultimate flexural capacity and failure modes,corrosion resistance of the rebars,load-deflection behaviour, andductility. A summary matrix table was developed as a guideline to serve in a selection-making process as each reinforcing material offers different advantages that may be suitable for specific conditions.

Add Traffic Signal Head Phasing Diagram to Reduce Connection Errors and to Improve Safety

lun, 11/02/2020 - 17:39
Add Traffic Signal Head Phasing Diagram to Reduce Connection Errors and to Improve Safety
by Liu,J.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5102 - INTERNET


Traffic signals are becoming more and more complicated nowadays. Traditionally traffic engineers will design the intersection based on traffic count data, field observation, and accident history and warrant analysis. Then drafters will draw the phasing diagram/construction/Traffic Signals for this intersection. Technologists will then implement timing plans and databases based on the drafts. Then the timing plan/database will be handed into signal installers. During all this process, if one chain is broken, then traffic signal safety and operation can be in hazardous situation. The proper application and design of the traffic signal is a key component in improving the safety and efficiency of the intersection. To remove all the uncertainness, a Traffic Signal Head Phasing Diagram will clarify unnecessary confusion. Signal phasing is the sequence of individual signal phases or combinations of signal phases within a cycle that define the order in which various pedestrian and vehicular movements are assigned the right-of-way. While intersections are becoming more complicated, more functions/phases/movement are needed to adapt to different vehicle and pedestrian requirement, complicated phase sequences and signal head setup come along with it. Following are a few examples, including Dallas Left-Turn Display for Left-Turn Lead-Lag Signal Phasing, Diamond Interchange, Right-Turn vehicle phase overlap, pedestrian phases in a wide intersection that covers two consecutive vehicle phases. Traditional simple signal head design without clear designation may not work well for these complex situations. The solution is to draw a Traffic Signal Head Phasing Diagram/Notation. The diagram can be drawn in existing traffic signal diagram, just by adding a few more signal head diagrams, with some notations on the side explaining the phase number or overlap number for that signal head. Or a table can be drawn to explain which color in Signal head is driven by which phase or overlap. It sounds like a simple improvement, but for large intersections this process will simplify the guessing process by installers, make engineer/drafter's job much clear, and also make the installers’ job much easier and reduce the risk of wrong connections. The signal head phasing diagram can avoid unnecessary guesses from traffic professionals, provide a much clearer image of the operation of the controllers and traffic signal indications. One image is worth more than a thousand words!

A Finite Element Approach to the Design of Flexible Pavements in Canada

lun, 11/02/2020 - 17:22
A Finite Element Approach to the Design of Flexible Pavements in Canada
by Kakavand,R; Shafiee,M; Maadani,O; Komeili,A.
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5101 - INTERNET


The design of cost-effective, long-lasting pavements is of high importance in Canada, where daily and seasonal temperature varies significantly. Moreover, the abrupt changes in the global climate and its inverse impacts on transport infrastructures over the last decade require planning for necessary adaptations to mitigate those effects. More research should be conducted to address the potential impacts of climate change on the pavement design. A mechanistic analysis that considers thermomechanical loads could be a tool to study the possibility of variations in frequency or severity of pavement failure due to climate change. Such a model when is fed with site-specific material properties, traffic load, temperature profile, and pavement parameters, would more accurately predict the performance, serviceability and safety requirements. The pavement design may involve identifying tens of parameters, which makes it complex for pavement engineers. The current study presents a finite element analysis of flexible pavements to evaluate thermal- and traffic-induced stresses for a selected highway cross-section in Canada. The original surface layer is asphalt concrete for which a linear viscoelastic behavior is assumed. Other layers of the flexible pavement were assumed elastic. The annual temperature profile of the studied construction site was obtained from the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database. The change in layers stiffness due to air temperature was simulated by considering temperature-dependent material properties. The outcome of the finite element simulation was implemented into the Ontario pavement design guide to evaluate the design life of the studied cross-section. The outcome of this study was also compared with the AASHTO (1993) design procedure to investigate the similarities and discrepancies between the two methods. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an online, user-friendly interface to ease the implementation of the pavement design guide in Canada.

Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads

ven, 10/30/2020 - 15:26
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads
2020.
Transportation Association of Canada 2020 Conference and Exhibition - The Journey to Safer Roads.
CA6 ARH_10 2020A5101-47 - INTERNET

Development of a Computer-Vision Based on Real-Time Pedestrian Comfort Estimation System (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 22:39
Development of a Computer-Vision Based on Real-Time Pedestrian Comfort Estimation System (Poster)
by Yang,S; Claudio,P; Ahmad,A; Park,PY; Sohn,G.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5118 - INTERNET


Pedestrian comfort is often represented by pedestrian level of service (PLOS). PLOS usually measured using aggregated level of pedestrian volume, speed, and/or density. Very few studies have considered individual pedestrians’ specific gait characteristics to present pedestrian comfort. However, they did not measure individual pedestrians’ comfort real-time basis. The goal of this study was to develop a novel method that can measure individual pedestrians’ comfort real-time basis using pedestrians’ gait characteristics.

Advanced Rail Infrastructure Mapping Technologies for Train Derailment Mitigation (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 22:39
Advanced Rail Infrastructure Mapping Technologies for Train Derailment Mitigation (Poster)
by Sohn,G; Shabazi,M; Park,P; Asgary,A.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5105 - INTERNET


More than 60% of rail accidents were reported due to derailments. The most significant causes of derailment accidents are related to defects of track/wayside elements and impacts of environmental factors. Mobile LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) System (MLS) is an emerging technology enabling rapid engineering grade mapping and virtual surveying over railway infrastructure. Despite its large potential, MLS has been only used for rail track condition assessment. Its potential for railway asset management has not been exploited yet.

VISSIM Microsimulation Analysis of Truck Signal Priority (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 21:23
VISSIM Microsimulation Analysis of Truck Signal Priority (Poster)
by Rampure,R; Gingerich,K; Park,PY.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5164 - INTERNET


Stopped trucks increase congestion at intersections due to low acceleration rates (Fig. 2) while high volumes of trucks may block all lanes (Fig. 3). Congestion causes traffic delays that lead to economic and environmental costs for trucks and additional frustration for other drivers. Many studies and applications exist for transit signal priority (TSP), but truck signal priority (TkSP) is comparatively unknown.

City of St. Albert's ITS Strategic Plan - A Smart City Roadmap (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 20:59
City of St. Albert's ITS Strategic Plan - A Smart City Roadmap (Poster)
by Kitasaka,K; Eklund,K; Schick,D.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5156 - INTERNET


The City of St Albert in Alberta, a community of 65,000, has an abundance of amenities that attract businesses and residents that seek the “small town” environment, yet offers activities common to larger cities. Stepping into St Albert, these amenities are visible to all. Arts and cultural activities are plentiful. St Albert is called the “Botanical Arts City”. Walking through its downtown core is like strolling in a quaint European town with an underlying modern transportation network. Not surprisingly, as the City grows, it is experiencing “big city” problems such as traffic congestion, delays and accidents. St Albert has taken steps to develop an ITS “roadmap” to protect this future vision of an inviting, vibrant community, The St Albert Transportation Master Plan (TMP) and the Smart City Master Plan both discussed the steps needed toward a more efficient, safer and “smart city” future. Transportation, innovation, information – all key terms in the future city.

Street Light Radar Traffic Detection and Counting - Validation and Application to Sustainable Communities (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 20:36
Street Light Radar Traffic Detection and Counting - Validation and Application to Sustainable Communities (Poster)
by Groszko,W.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5154 - INTERNET


The Nova Scotia Community College (NSCC) conducted a test of the accuracy of the LED Roadway Lighting (LRL) Toolless Sensor Platform (TSP) and its radar sensor for streetlights that detects the movements of vehicles. The NSCC Applied Energy Research Lab (AERLab) evaluated the accuracy of the TSP in a real-world test case on Tower Road, in Halifax, Nova Scotia. NSCC performed 11 sessions of manual data collection and observed 467 vehicular events. These manual observations, along with video recordings, were then compared to the TSP monitor log.

Parking Classification and Supply Modelling for Inter-Regional Truck Trips (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 20:13
Parking Classification and Supply Modelling for Inter-Regional Truck Trips (Poster)
by Nevland,EA; Gingerich,K; Park,PY.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5144 - INTERNET


A lack of safe and legal truck parking is considered as a major issue in the freight transportation industry. Hours of service (HOS) and electronic logging device (ELD) mandates, implemented to reduce fatigue, can force drivers to choose between parking illegally or driving longer than allowed. It is important to quantitatively assess the locations and extent of any truck parking deficiencies.

New Standards for Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) Construction Projects (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 19:30
New Standards for Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS) Construction Projects (Poster)
by Smeeth,G.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5143 - INTERNET


Morrison Hershfield has developed all-new standards for electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) construction projects for the Ministry of Transportation Ontario (MTO) for use in public parking lots. These standard drawings and specifications have been designed with the intent to one day become Ontario Provincial Standard Drawings (OPSDs) and Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications (OPSSes). Ontario has become one of the first jurisdictions to develop standard construction drawings and specifications for the installation of public electric vehicle charging stations and associated infrastructure. The objective of these standards is to assist in the detail design of all future MTO EVCS projects to come.

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis and Performance Comparison of Asphalt Overlays on PCC Pavements in Wet-Freeze Regions of Canada (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 19:15
Life-Cycle Cost Analysis and Performance Comparison of Asphalt Overlays on PCC Pavements in Wet-Freeze Regions of Canada (Poster)
by Huyan,J; Oyeyi,AG; Tighe,S.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5137 - INTERNET


Long term pavement performance studies and continuous evaluations can help inform better rehabilitation strategies, thus suggesting more innovative rehabilitation designs. This research addressed the performance of asphalt concrete over PCC pavements on four LTPP data sites in the selected wet-freeze climate locations of the US and Canada.

Improving Trip Generation Estimates for Canadian Sites Using Aggregation and Extraction Techniques (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 18:57
Improving Trip Generation Estimates for Canadian Sites Using Aggregation and Extraction Techniques (Poster)
by Kenchappagoudra,M.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5133 - INTERNET


Trip generation analysis plays a vital role in determining the impact of new land use developments. Trips are generally estimated using regionally established trip rates from trip generation data collected over the period of time at specific land uses. However, some regions which do not have their own data usually rely on trip generation data published by other similar regions or on data collected by the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), USA. Over the last 50 years, ITE has already collected data at over 26,000 sites in various parts of the USA and Canada for 173 different types of land uses. As only a small subset of data (~0.5%) is from Canada, there is a question as to whether that data could better represent Canadian sites. As ITE’s Trip Generation Manuals in the hardcopy format do not facilitate viewing or extracting data for specific regions (i.e. country or state) or the ability to aggregate data with local data, practitioners face a number of challenges in using ITE’s data for Canadian sites. To evaluate if data extraction and aggregation have any impact on improving trip generation estimates, data from Canadian and American sites were studied separately in order to analyze the statistical parameters by using the OTISS Pro analysis tools. The analysis revealed that 38% of studies with good data showed significant improvements in terms of fine-tuning standard deviation and regression coefficient (R2) after extracting Canadian sites data. Similarly, about 15% of studies with good data showed improved statistics by aggregating with the American site data. This further helped us to improve trip generation estimates by establishing appropriate trip rates and equations for Canadian sites. Based on this finding, this poster illustrates that by having a way to extract ITE’s data by regions or aggregate with the relevant local data could benefit Canadian practitioners performing qualitative trip generation analyses. It also emphasizes the importance of collecting more regional data.

Development of a Real-Time Internet-of-Things (IoT) Device to Prevent First Responders' Injuries Involved with Collisions (Poster)

lun, 01/20/2020 - 18:38
Development of a Real-Time Internet-of-Things (IoT) Device to Prevent First Responders' Injuries Involved with Collisions (Poster)
by Mohammadi,A; Park,PY; Asgary,A; Podloski,B; Liu,X; Mukherjee,A.
2019.
Transportation Association of Canada and ITS Canada 2019 Joint Conference and Exhibition.
CA6 ARH_10 2019A5119 - INTERNET


In-vehicle collision avoidance systems (e.g., automatic braking systems) are designed to protect drivers/passengers and pedestrians in the case of an emergency, but few studies have investigated systems designed to detect potential threats, such as fast approaching vehicles, and warn first responders that they need to take proactive evasive actions to avoid a collision.

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