Le présent article vise donc: Dresser un portrait sommaire de l’implantation de limite de vitesse 30 km/h au Québec et au Canada (état de la situation); Expliquer la différence entre une limite de vitesse de 30 km/h et une zone 30 km/h; Analyser l’impact sur le comportement des usagers (la vitesse pratiquée) de l’implantation de limites de vitesse de 30 km/h avec et sans mesures physiques- Il ne traite pas de l’aspect sécurité (réduction du nombre d’accidents); Présenter quelques bonnes pratiques en France et Angleterre; Et présenter certains constats généraux suite à cette étude.
The use of Lightweight Cellular Concrete (LCC) in the pavement structure is a potential solution to reducing the burden of the pavement on the roadbed, especially over weak soils, hence alleviating potential rutting and other forms of distress. Evaluating the performance feasibility of such materials is necessary, especially in comparison to traditional materials. This will involve both field and laboratory evaluation to provide relevant information for its application. As part of the field evaluation, a design that incorporated LCC as a subbase alternative in the pavement structure was developed and constructed. A shoulder bus stop which experienced severe rutting and cracking was selected as a trial location. The design of the trial included one control section constituting Granular B as subbase material and two LCC sections with LCC thicknesses of 250mm and 350mm as subbase material. Subsurface instrumentation was installed in each layer of the three sections including strain gauges, pressure cells, moisture probes, maturity sensors, and temperature strings. A weather station consisting of a rain gauge and solar radiation shield was also installed at the location of the trial section to monitor weather events. The instrumentation has been monitored to obtain information about the trial section with LCC and compare with the traditional Granular B material. Readings from the maturity sensors indicated that the concrete hydration process peaked at about twelve hours for both LCC sections and depicted a 28-day compressive strength of 1.67MPa and an ultimate strength estimated to reach 2.20MPa and 2.02MPa for the LCC 350 and 250 sections respectively. Temperature profiles indicated higher temperatures within and below the LCC layers compared to the control section, portraying LCC insulation properties. Moisture conditions were generally found to be saturated for all layers in all section during the preliminary study period. In general, data from all installed sensors including pressure cells and strain gauges, in addition to results already discussed are presented in this paper.
Long term pavement performance studies and continuous evaluations can help inform better rehabilitation strategies, thus suggesting more innovative rehabilitation designs. This research sought to answer questions on which overlay type would perform better overtime in wet-freeze regions, and what are the major factors influencing their performances. This paper addressed the performance of asphalt concrete over PCC pavements on four LTPP data sites in the selected wet-freeze climate locations of the US and Canada. It has been found that the performance of PCC pavements is subjected to different rehabilitation strategies in the GPS-7 section of the LTPP program. Initially, both convolutional and the modified asphalt overlay strategies were applied for the asphalt concrete pavements rehabilitations for both GPS-7B and C. Then, the performance comparisons are conducted. Firstly, the data obtained were analysed to evaluate the reduction in distresses and roughness index (IRI) achieved after these rehabilitation strategies were applied. Meanwhile, trend analyses were carried out to note the improvements overtime. It was found that the surface distresses such as longitudinal and transverse cracks took longer periods to occur on the modified overlays, and those defects have lower severity compared with the conventional asphalt overlays. What’s more, both types of overlay treatments resulted in similar levels of IRI after few successive years of service. However, the rate of roughness changing seemed better if the modified asphalt overlay was conducted on the milled surfaced and with thickness asphalt overlays. Finally, the scenarios generated for LCCA proved that modified asphalt overlays are more suggested than conventional asphalt overlay considering the overall pavement maintenance cost.
Traffic management is changing fast. In order to make the right choices concerning smart mobility, it is important for road operators to monitor ITS developments relevant for traffic management. Dutch road operator Rijkswaterstaat developed a so called Leading Innovation Timeline (LIT) to deal with this. It is a tool to visualize future innovation, more in particular changes in IT systems which are expected to have an impact on traffic management. The LIT helps create awareness of what is happening around us and how fast it will influence traffic management. When relying on the LIT, investments can be made in a timely manner. It also allows road operators to better assess risks of new innovations. The new LIT will be a European timeline However, broadening the timeline involves some challenges as the speed at which an innovation is implemented or accepted differs per country and depends on the systems already in place.
Efficient management of bridge structures requires a thorough understanding of the traffic using a bridge. In this paper an innovative static strain-based remote Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion (BWIM) system is deployed on a truss bridge in rural New Brunswick, Canada. The analysis methods are briefly outlined, and the system is successfully validated with a truck of known weight resulting in an average error of 7% in gross vehicle weight estimation. It is shown how the BWIM system can be used in estimating the dynamic amplification factors use in the analysis and design of bridges.
Recent watershed advancements in computer vision and machine learning has allowed for the possibility of classifying traffic characteristics from camera image data in real time. Information from traffic images can supplement data from other sensors such as loop detectors, Bluetooth and WiFi sensors and Dedicated Short Range communications (DSRC) roadside units. In this paper, we propose a method for near real-time estimation of traffic state variables such as volume and speed, in locations where traffic cameras exist. The proposed system allows municipalities and provinces to extend the utility of their existing camera systems with minimal additional resources. In this paper, we specifically explore the application of convolutional neural networks (CNN) to traffic image processing. We use existing loop detector data from Toronto highways as the ground truth to train and test the CNN to infer the macroscopic traffic flow characteristics of speed and flow from the still images. Preprocessing using temporal median stacking and image subtraction was first done to identify cars in lanes. The model was then trained, using ground truth data from loop detectors, to estimate traffic speed and volume directly from the images for all vehicle types. The proposed model generates promising results, with up to 88.6 percent accuracy, depending on the bin size.
An increased awareness of sustainability in the pavement industry has encourages the use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies. Compared to conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) that requires a high production temperature, WMA has several benefits, such as saving fuel and energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving the work environment. However, systematic analysis of long-term field performance for pavements containing WMA mixtures has been scarce. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to evaluate the field performance of flexible pavements using WMA technologies (referred as WMA pavements in this paper) and compare the general trends of the longer-term performance between WMA and HMA pavements across the United States. Specifically, 28 WMA pavement projects along with their companion HMA pavements were evaluated for an extended performance period in terms of transverse cracking, longitudinal cracking rutting, and moisture damage. A companion HMA pavement refers to a pavement that shares similar pavement structure, climate, traffic conditions and mixture design with the WMA pavement; the main differences are the usage of WMA technologies in the surface layer and the reduced production temperature for WMA mixtures. The selected projects include five projects constructed during the course of the study, and 23 in-service projects covering different service ages, traffic volumes, pavement structures, WMA technologies, amd four climatic zones across the United States. It was found that pavements containing various WMA technologies exhibited comparable long-term field performance as compared to that of the companion HMA pavement in terms of transverse cracking, wheel path longitudinal cracking, and rutting. No moisture-related distress was found in the field for either HMA or WMA pavements. Overall, cracking and rutting performance show a clear pattern of climate influence. Cracking distress appears to be more of a concern within wet climatic zones while less typical in dry climatic zones, which suggests that moisture should be considered in evaluating the cracking potential of asphalt mixtures. Results presented herein were part of NCHRP Project 9-49A on the Performance of WMA Technologies: Stage II – Long-Term Field Performance.
Due to the nature of construction, it is common for longitudinal joint in asphalt pavements to have lower densities and higher permeabilities than the main portion of the pavement lanes. To address this concern, many states employ joint treatments such as fog seals or void reducing asphalt membranes (VRAM). Qualitative evidence in Indiana appears to indicate that longitudinal joint lives have been improved using joint treatments, but the specific materials and application rates used to treat longitudinal joints in Indiana has not been qualitatively investigated. This research aims to investigate the fog seal materials and application rates specified for use on longitudinal joints and to compare the treatments. These objectives were accomplished by employing laboratory testing of both laboratory prepared specimens and field samples. The research performed on the laboratory specimens found the application of fog seals can improve the performance of the longitudinal joints with respect to permeability. While the permeability of the asphalt specimens was reduced by the presence of a fog seal treatment, the benefits were irrespective of the fog seal material. The results also indicate that the fog seal should be reapplied at five to seven year intervals. The testing of the field samples indicated that both the SS-1hfog seal and VRAM treatments were effective in reducing the permeability of the asphalt mixtures. The VRAM samples had statistically higher permeability coefficients than the SS-1h fog seal samples, which may be attributed to potential construction or material issues. While the SS-1h fog seal treatment appears to have better performance than the VRAM, the effectiveness of the treatments over time is not known. Additional further research is recommended to verify and support these results and recommendations and to further compare and understand the performance of SS-1h and VRAM treatments over time.
Located on the western edge of the City of Toronto, Pearson International Airport is Canada’s largest and busiest airport, moving over 41 million passengers each year on nearly 450,000 flights (Greater Toronto Airports Authority, 2017). The facilities at Pearson are immense, consisting of numerous check-in stations, security checkpoints, customs and border preclearance facilities, traveller amenities, and more, all spread across millions of square feet of space in two terminal buildings. Additionally, the airport serves as a temporary home to hundreds of aircraft, and a more permanent home to dozens of airside vehicles and the Link train that connects both terminals. Moreover, these facilities, services, and vehicles must all work together in a complex system to safely and efficiently move thousands of passengers every day. In this paper, an agent-based microsimulation model of Pearson Airport’s terminals is proposed, starting with an overview of the two terminals and their major components. Based on this information, sets of major classes and sub-classes are outlined, detailing their attributes and behaviours. Next, the relationships between these classes are described and the information flows that influence these relationships and behaviours are highlighted, including details about how the model steps through time. Finally, some sources of calibration and validation data are provided, and the airport’s interactions and relationships with other systems are explored. Using this model, it will be possible to gain a better understanding of Pearson Airport’s complex behaviours based on the behaviours of its numerous sub-systems.
Observation revealed that at the intersection of King Street and Yonge Street, streetcars blocked traffic seriously during green lights. To solve the problem, this report provides and evaluates two solutions, namely, streetcar platforms and Transit Signal Priority System. By comparing and analyzing, the superior solution, Transit Signal Priority System, is recommended in this report.
An efficient transport system is a catalyst for socio-economic advancement of all nations, there is hardly any town or city that can function efficiently and effectively without adequate, reliable, safe and affordable transport network (Pius et al. 2017). Rail transport system has played a significant role in nations’ development and the encouragement of regional cooperation. It is among the critical national infrastructures needed for economic and technology growth. Without transport network, many towns and cities would be severely inadequate in ability to compete with others. Given the fact that it is the duty of rail operators to plan and design profitable rail networks and support it with robust strategy for effective service delivery that meets service user needs and expectations, to encourage repeat patronages and sector sustainability (Nwaogbe, Pius & Dashe, 2017). This paper main aims are to measure the level of service provided by the Nigerian Railway Cooperation (NRC) across the nations’ rail network. In a view to suggest possible areas of improvement. The objective is to evaluate six service dimensions; to capture what the commuters are thinking about their services. Before now, Nigeria’s rail network has received very little attention from the scholars and the rail operators are focusing on the tick boxes exercise for regulator and government gratification, instead of them striving to provide a better service experience and become passenger centric operators in their strategies for loyalty and repeat usage (Pius, Nwaogbe & Chad, 2017).
In recent years, the introduction of light rail transit (LRT) has been adopted by many US cities as a means to revitalize urban areas. It is not clear whether original residents are the ones benefiting from this place based revitalization. A common argument in favour of LRT construction is that LRT connects workers to firms. This study will search for evidence as to whether this contention is true. The first contribution of this paper will be to employ panel census tract data to estimate the neighbourhood change effects of LRT stations. The rapid proliferation of LRT construction and proposals in US cities inspire an urgency for such estimates. Analysis reveals that LRT stations are associated with significantly improved local labour market outcomes. The introduction of light rail also pushes up local home values and spurs the arrival of more affluent populations, accordant with gentrification concerns. The quasi-random introduction of LRT transit systems in three US cities over the 2000-2013 period is used to estimate causal neighbourhood effects.
The relationship between city expansion and non-motorized transport especially walking and cycling cannot be overemphasized in the world in general and in Ethiopia in particular. Cities in Ethiopia particularly Addis Ababa is vulnerable to transportation service, planning and management problem. The occurrence of transportation chaos in Addis Ababa has become an everyday event with severe consequences mostly felt by the urban poor. The above fact tells us that it is wise to invest in non-motorised transport (NMT) infrastructure especially walking and cycling that benefits the public mostly the urban poor. The study evaluate the existing condition of three NMT road segment located on Bole sub-city Addis Ababa, in terms of variety of NMT characteristics like safety, accessibility and environment. Furthermore, inadequate NMT infrastructure has been also identified. Finally, crucial recommendation of improvement has been forwarded so as to solve the issues related to safety, accessibility and environment of NMT infrastructure issues. The study has been done by defining important NMT variables under three categories. Variables like pedestrian walk way, bicycle lane and crossing facilities were classified under independent variable. Variables like policy, strategy, regulation, administration and management were considered as moderators. Variables like safety, accessibility and environment were classified under the dependent variable.
As party to the 2016 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s (UNFCCC) Paris Agreement, Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. According to Physical Flow Accounts, Canada’s total GHG emissions output, including all industries and households, was 755.1 Megatonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) in 2015. Aviation – both domestic and international flights – contributed 2.5% of this total, emitting 18.7 Mt CO2 eq in 2015. Domestic aviation emissions from both domestic and foreign airlines operating in Canada fall under the Paris Agreement, whereas emissions from international aviation fall under the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). CORSIA’s goal is to achieve carbon-neutral growth from 2020 onward. Transport Canada has identified several measures that are expected to help reduce GHG emissions from aviation. These measures include fleet renewal, more efficient air operations, improved air traffic management and alternative fuels, among others. Not only would a reduction in GHG emissions by air carriers help Canada towards its commitments under the Paris Agreement, but it may also be in the carriers’ financial interest to become as fuel-efficient as possible to reduce operating expenses. This paper examines Canadian air services beginning with a review of the current trends in airline passenger traffic along with total emissions output. It then investigates how two types of GHG reduction measures – fleet renewal and more efficient air operations – offer an opportunity for Canadian air carriers to see both environmental and financial benefits.
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the paradigms underlying cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multicriteria decision aiding (MCDA) and to compare the two methodologies through the prism of sustainable transportation. We first describe the different types of rationality in decision-aiding, followed by a brief presentation of the decision-aiding methodologies. Subsequently, based on a literature review, we summarize their strengths and weaknesses as identified by the various authors and conclude with a short discussion regarding some issues specific to transportation.
Companies across the world are investing in the research and development of hyperloop technologies. This paper specifically addresses a hyperloop within the framework of Canada’s future transportation system. In this context, information relating to the endeavours of Virgin Hyperloop One and TransPod is perhaps most relevant, as these two companies outwardly appear to have prioritized a Canadian route. Given the nascent status of this industry, the body of literature is relatively small. This paper approaches a hyperloop from a regulatory perspective, with respect to potential Environmental Assessment (EA) requirements. It assumes that a hyperloop will be demonstrated to be technically feasible, and that the political and social will exist to create favourable conditions for its implementation in Canada. These are assumptions that will need to be proven or otherwise, but which exceed the scope of this paper.
The transportation industry moves astonishing volumes and varieties of products for diverse industries. To meet these widely diverging needs, the transportation industry employs a various processes. Each product is moved utilizing one of these processes or a blend of two. The goal of this paper is to describe these general processes and the types of products moved by each. Examples from the trucking industry will be provided, though the processes are generalized and applicable to all other transport modes. Once presented in the first section, it will be shown that the processes form a continuum – thus a taxonomy for transportation.
The movement of people and goods is critical to any economy, especially in a trade-reliant country like Canada. As such, there is a need to continually assess and monitor the transportation system which requires quality statistical information. The transportation statistics program at Statistics Canada measures various aspects of activities related to the movement of people and goods and covers: Transportation by air statistics based on surveys related to the movement of aircraft, passengers and cargo by air for both Canadian and foreign air carriers operating in Canada; Transportation by rail statistics based on surveys related to rail transportation of passengers and cargo in Canada and between the United States and Canada; Transportation by road statistics based on surveys relating to road transportation of passengers by bus and cargo by trucks in Canada. This paper describes the methodology innovations that were implemented for six financial and operating transportation surveys. Section 2 presents the transportation statistics program and the remaining sections detail the innovations that the financial and operating survey redesign bring to the sampling frame creation, sampling, collection, data processing, estimation and dissemination methodologies.
The physical movement of goods plays a key role in many market transactions, making the transportation system an intrinsic component of any economy. As a trade-reliant nation with its population spread over a vast landscape, Canada is particularly dependent on an effective transportation system. And, in order to assess the national transport system and its ability to move freight, quality statistical information is required. A Freight Analysis Framework is a planning tool for assessing the transport network and its capacity to meet projected demand. The principal data for such a framework is a set of commodity origin-destination flows by mode. Statistics Canada is constructing a carrier-based Canadian Freight Analysis Framework (CFAF) for Transport Canada. In order to do so, a set of commodity flow estimates by weight as well as by origin and destination is required for each mode. However, the agency’s Trucking Commodity Origin Destination (TCOD) survey currently excludes own-account or private trucking as well as smaller for-hire establishments with annual revenues below $1.3 million. As part of a TCOD redesign, coverage is expanding by lowering the revenue threshold to include smaller carriers and by capturing the trucking activity of businesses assigned to other industries (i.e., own-account or private trucking).To expand coverage however, there is a need to understand the role of smaller trucking operators and the extent to which they work as dedicated sub-contractors for larger for-hire or private carriers. To aid in this understanding, Statistics Canada is conducting a study of small motor carriers of freight consisting of three components: a review, a nature of business survey and consultations with the industry. This research paper reports on the methods used for the survey. After a brief overview of the for-hire trucking industry, the paper uses the sample frame to provide a profile of smaller trucking establishments. It concludes by discussing the next steps in the study.
As more jurisdictions look for innovative ways and products to enhance median and roadside safety, High Tension Cable Barrier (HTCB) stands out as the latest product that delivers on safety, cost, and ease of maintenance. HTCB is unique in that it can accommodate hits from either side, making it an attractive choice for transportation agencies in order to reduce cross-median collisions and collision severity. Highway agencies and designers are tasked with the challenges of learning how to implement HTCB appropriately, both alone and in conjunction with traditional guardrail. This paper examines the particular case of Highway 16A in the Province of Alberta and how HTCB was implemented in a 10 km section to not only reduce collision frequencies and severity, but also how a relatively new and proprietary product was implemented. The paper discusses how horizontal and vertical geometry, cross-section, connections to existing bridgerail, and length of need all played their respective roles in determining the length and location of HTCB. Highway 16A is a busy commuter highway, a remnant of the previous Trans-Canada Highway between Edmonton and Jasper. It now serves the cities of Spruce Grove and Edmonton and carries over 30,000 vehicles a day. The highway is 4-lane divided with a very narrow depressed median and no existing barriers of any kind. As a result, Highway 16A experienced a large number of cross-median collisions. Alberta Transportation (AT) sought to install HTCB as a way to reduce these collisions while allowing for ease of maintenance operations within the narrow median. Designers at Morrison Hershfield (MH), while familiar with traditional roadside barrier systems, conducted research on how to implement HTCB using AT’s Design Bulletin #75/2012 and HTCB (and Rumble Strips) Practices & Guidelines presentation. The design had to consider many factors, such as horizontal and vertical geometry of each carriageway, superelevation, grade differences across the median, accommodating left-turn storage lanes, median openings and connections to existing bridgerail and strong-post W-beam. Construction had its own unique challenges, working with a contractor who was relatively new to HTCB, and AT’s requirements for working on a very busy highway, as well as the learning curve associated with installing a proprietary product. Overall, the HTCB installation went smoothly as AT’s Project Manager, the designers, and contractor all worked together to complete the project. The finished project is a 10 km section of highway with new HTCB that is aesthetically compatible and provides a higher level of safety than before.