Dubbed locally as “the Octopus”, the Highway 97A / Main Street intersection forms the entrance to Sicamous, British Columbia, a tourism community with a high percentage of elderly residents, and numerous houseboat rental businesses. The original multi-leg, 45-degree skewed intersection configuration was so confusing and geometrically insufficient that local users avoided the intersection. There were no facilities for cyclists or pedestrians, resulting in significant safety concerns with students from the adjacent school crossing irregularly. The retail businesses immediately adjacent to the intersection suffered as a result. The BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI) had identified a 2-lane roundabout as a preferred option for this location but had previously received adverse comment from the trucking industry (BCTA) regarding roundabouts on numbered routes, primarily due to their perceived inability to accommodate oversized loads. The design of this roundabout therefore needed to carefully balance the safety and operational needs of all users, including oversize permit vehicles, houseboat trailers, and vulnerable users, and required acceptance from the trucking industry and public. Extensive stakeholder and community engagement, as well as innovative design elements, produced a solution with custom aprons for specific vehicle use to better separate users; standardization of materials, colour and textures to identify intended use; a roll-over median approach island to allow counterflow operation of permit vehicles with pilot cars; and reduced cross fall on circular roadway to reduce heavy vehicle racking and roll-over potential. The design is phased for a double-lane facility ultimately. However, a single-lane was constructed initially to gain familiarity and acceptance and improve safety. Active transportation needs are accommodated by multi-use pathways, cycle paths and ramps, and tactile mats are provided for the visually impaired, making it safe for all active modes and in particular the local school children. The design also includes raingardens and native, drought-tolerant plantings, as well as unique public art features. An unintended spin-off of the project is that several adjacent properties have already been rejuvenated due to the significantly improved access. This $7.3M project opened in November 2016 and is safely used by heavy and OS/OW permit vehicles. It has been well received by the local council, Splatsin First Nation, BCTA and MoTI. So much so that this project was awarded the 2017 BC MoTI Deputy Minister’s Award of Excellence for Design.
A research project with the goal of identifying universal accessibility parameters for shared streets was developed by the Transportation Branch of the City of Montreal’s Infrastructure, Roads and Transportation Services Department. This project was initiated in the fall of 2016 and completed in the spring of 2017. The adoption of the Pedestrian Charter in 2006 was a decisive moment for the City of Montreal, as the Charter recognized the pedestrians’ primacy in the urban environment. By designating the pedestrian as the core priority, the City of Montreal wanted to position walking as a primary means of movement, in addition to offering Montrealers a safe and convenient pedestrian environment that would lead to the re-appropriation of the public realm by local residents. The Montreal Transportation Plan, approved in 2008, supports this vision and specifies the need to share the road between all user categories. Measures 14 and 15 of the Transportation Plan respectively focus on redefining the place of motorized transportation and on consolidating the pedestrian environment at the neighbourhood level. In keeping with the Plan’s policy direction, the City of Montreal is developing highly innovative pedestrian infrastructures, including several pilot projects relating to the shared streets concept. The ultimate goal is to develop sustainable mobility at the neighbourhood level by improving pedestrian safety and comfort, encouraging all Montrealers to walk to nearby destinations as a first choice.
An economic and cultural hub in Saskatchewan, Saskatoon has become one of the most attractive places in Canada to live. In the next 25 to 40 years, Saskatoon’s population is expected to double, from 250,000 to 500,000. Based on comprehensive visioning (Saskatoon Speaks), analysis, and planning (Strategic Plan 2013-2023 and Growth Plan to Half a Million), the City recognizes that accommodating growth using a business-as-usual approach would be problematic if not unsustainable. In order to enhance the quality of life and increase economic activity in Saskatoon, the Growth Plan identifies three interrelated strategies: corridor growth, transit and core bridges. Under the transit strategy, bus rapid transit (BRT) forms the backbone of a multi-modal transportation system supporting the movement of people along major corridors, to key destinations and development nodes. Work related to the planning and design of the BRT is underway. The BRT concept, configuration, and preliminary design offers solutions that meets the needs of the Saskatoon transit market, Growth Plan objectives, scale of the community, and available funding. The implementation of the BRT will improve transit frequency, reliability, and customer experience, serving existing customers better and attracting new riders. BRT is also a catalyst for city building. BRT is the mobility backbone of several land use intensification initiatives including: Corridor Plans for 22nd Street, College Drive, 8th Street, Preston Avenue and three mixed use Transit Villages at established commercial nodes adjacent to the future BRT lines.
SNC Lavalin O&M is the company responsible for the operations, maintenance and rehabilitation of 275 kilometres of Trans-Canada Highway in New Brunswick; from the Quebec border to Longs Creek (west of Fredericton), and Route 95 between the United States border and Woodstock, until 2033. During its winter operations, SNC Lavalin O&M utilizes echelon plowing, the practice of staggering snowplows across all lanes of a multi-lane highway. By passing the ridge of snow from the lead snow plow to the following plow, echelon plowing makes it possible to clear accumulation from all lanes at once. It is, however, extremely dangerous for motorists to pass between or around the snowplows while in this formation, due to the possibility of whiteout conditions between the plow trucks. There is also the danger of impact with the back of the right side wing plow as it becomes obscured by snow. The number of collisions between motorists and the snow plow right wings was an issue even after many public awareness campaigns on the risks involved when passing between the plow trucks. After the last collision with injury to the plow operator in March 2013, and in the continuing effort to keep motorists as well as employees safe, SNC Lavalin O&M developed a “Safety Swing Arm”. The Safety Swing Arm consists of a 2.7 meter mechanical arm with high intensity flashing lights, installed on the back of the lead plow truck. When the right side wing plow is deployed, the arm simultaneously extends to create a further visual and break-a-way physical barrier between the motorists and the right wing plow. The Safety Swing Arm has been proven to prevent motorists from hitting the right wing while passing the plow during poor visibility conditions.
This paper synthesizes the results of a project completed for the City of Edmonton in 2017 to recommend lane width values for the City’s Complete Streets Design and Construction Standards. The project included a literature review to synthesize research on the safety and speed implications of narrowed lane widths in urban areas; a jurisdictional review to document peer practice for lane widths and all-season operation in winter cities; and an in-service evaluation of the safety implications of the City’s existing lane widths. A cross-sectional population-segmented study was conducted on the effect of lane widths on safety on 626 Edmonton road segments using five years of data. Regression models were developed to understand the effect of lane width on the proportion of speeding vehicles, the frequency of all severity segment collisions, and the frequency of fatal/injury segment collisions. The main conclusion was that speed should be a primary factor in setting context-sensitive design guidelines for lane widths. The paper concludes with the lane width values incorporated into the City’s Complete Streets Design and Construction Standards. Opportunities for future research are discussed.
This paper is based on research carried out for the recent Canadian Transportation Act Review. It examines the potential for short sea shipping in the Great Lakes / St. Lawrence region and considers international best practices and their relevance to Canada. We revisit a study undertaken by MariNova in 2005, which examined the potential for a short sea service between Halifax augmented by a brief analysis of a Montreal-Hamilton service. The analysis removes all of the constraints previously identified and re-considers its viability. The study also examines the potential role for government, in terms of promoting investment in short sea shipping. For the purposes of this paper we consider short sea shipping to include container, roll-on, roll-off (ro-ro), bulk as well as tug-and barge operations, providing interregional, intraregional and transhipment services. Our definition does not include passenger ferries, although a significant amount of commercial cargo is carried on most of Canada’s ferry services, particularly in the Newfoundland trade.
The Canadian Marine Pilots’ Association (CMPA) recommended in their submissions to the Canadian Transportation Act Review Panel (2014), and more recently to the Minister of Transport (2016) to consider the structure and administration of a new pilotage service when assessing its potential role in the Arctic. As such, the purpose of this paper is to explore pilotage for Canadian arctic waters in the context of the Northern Marine Transportation Corridors (NMTC) Initiative as a means of improving the safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. To aid the analysis, the CMPA’s principles of organizing pilotage in Canada will be relied upon: to protect the public interest (i.e., safety); rigorous standards for qualifying as a pilot; recognition of regional differences in operating conditions, navigational challenges, types of marine traffic and supporting infrastructure; and the responsiveness of pilotage to changes in technology, vessels, infrastructure, and traffic patterns. The paper will begin with a brief overview of the necessity of the service, followed by a discussion of how pilotage could be offered in the Canadian Arctic, including how the service relates to the NMTC Initiative, how it could be administered, and what qualifications would be required of an Arctic pilot.
Transportation is one of the major contributors of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions all over the world. In Canada, transportation was the second largest source of GHG emissions in 2014, accounting for 23% of the total emissions nationwide (Environment Canada, 2016). At the provincial level, 38.4% of British Columbia’s GHG emissions came from the transportation sector (BC Ministry of Environment, 2016). Such high levels of GHG emissions can be attributed to the large expansion of the urban road network and automobile dependency in North America. It is very important to shift the paradigm and start planning our communities in a way that hinder automobile dependency and encourage people to use more sustainable modes of transportation. The fused grid model consists of several 16-hectare modules (ideally four) that provide vehicular accessibility for local traffic only and keep non-local traffic on the periphery of the modules while maintaining full pedestrian/cyclists accessibility via central green spaces and off-road pathways as shown in Figure 1. Perimeter roads in the fused grid model facilitate through traffic as per the following spacing: 1) collectors at 400 metres; 2) minor arterials at 800 metres; and 3) arterials at 1,600 metres. The classification, spacing, and alignments of the perimeter roads can be designed according to the existing ground conditions and planned land use activities. The model also provides convenient local services and amenities within a five-minute walking distance by classifying blocks located between the perimeter one-way couplet roads as mixed land use zones. All intersections in the neighbourhood are controlled by roundabouts or three-way intersections to reduce the severity of collisions. Several studies have been found in the literature that address the benefits of the fused grid model in various aspects including: safety (Sun and Lovegrove, 2013), traffic performance (IBI Group, 2007), walkability (Frank and Hawkins, 2007), and transportation modal share (Masoud et al. 2017). While previous research like Frank and Hawkins (2007) and Masoud et al. (2017) has concluded that applying fused grid principles will result in more walking and less driving, which obviously would result in reducing GHG emissions, none of the previous research quantified by how much would GHG be reduced and thus quantifying its social benefits.
There is a growing recognition of the relationship between patterns of urban land use and related levels of air pollutants (Abotalebi and Kanaroglou, 2015; Dimatulac & Maoh, 2016; Glaeser, 2011; Giuliano & Agarwal, 2011; Tyler, 2000; Zimmerman & Wiginton, 2016). The connection in this relationship is evolving land use patterns in Canada which have helped to encourage and sustain a dependency on motor vehicles. Consequently, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada from the operation of motor vehicles increased by over one-third (35%) from 1990 to 2007, whereas the growth rate of population was less than 20% over the same period (Terefe, 2010). As party to the 2016 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s Paris Agreement, Canada has committed to reducing its GHG emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. With transport there are two complementary approaches to help reach this reduction target. The first is to encourage a modal shift (Gullo & Rosales, 2016). In the urban context, this shift would be from motor vehicles to public transit, relying on policy options of full-cost pricing (e.g. tolling) and related land-use planning (e.g. Smart Growth, intensification). The second approach is to encourage more fuel efficient fleets. For the road motor vehicle fleet, this would entail a higher proportion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). This study investigates the extent to which provincial vehicle registration files (VRF) can be used as a source of information to profile the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. Such a profile is critical as a benchmark going forward in order to track changes in the motor vehicle fleet composition. The paper begins with an overview of the relationship between transportation and urban form as well as the current contribution of the transportation sector to Canada’s GHG emissions. After describing the provincial VRFs, the paper defines a typology and then estimates the motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. We conclude with an examination of possible next steps in this effort.
Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is beneficial to both road owners and builders as it allows for significant raw material cost reduction, while potentially maintaining expected pavement service life. In upcoming decades, the recycling of previously recycled pavements (i.e. re-recycling) will become widespread. There is currently little technical knowledge on how or how many times asphalt pavement can be recycled while sustaining its expected durability. A novel asphalt binder aging method involving thin layers, heat, water spray, and UV radiation was developed to simulate approximately 20 years of in-service aging. The aged binder was recovered and blended with a softer, virgin binder. The blend was subjected to the next aging cycle. The process was repeated four times to simulate four recycling cycles (80 years) at 25 percent RAP addition. Three virgin binders were tested: standard Performance Grade (PG), one grade softer PG, and standard PG softened with paraffinic oil to one PG softer binder. Very detailed chemical and rheological analyses were performed to understand the impact of multiple recycling on irreversible chemical changes and evolution of rheological properties over the time. Results indicated that at moderate recycling levels, re-recycling is a viable option if an appropriate virgin binder is used.
The local geology of Prince Edward Island (PEI) primarily consists of material soft in nature that does not meet traditional aggregate specifications for the production of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) or other surface treatments. Therefore, roughly 95 percent of PEI’s HMA aggregates must be obtained and imported from off-Island sources. The associated work, expense, and environmental impact involved has raised the Department’s interest in the viability of asphalt recycling as a potential surface treatment option. As a trial basis, the Department committed to recycling ten, one-kilometer sections of road ranging in classification from Local to Collector roads in 2016. Acceptance or rejection of the work was largely based on the ability of the Contractor to achieve the specified penetration values of the modified binder and visual inspection for defects, as well as requirements for cross slope, grade and joint construction of the completed HIR. The HIR process was constantly monitored in the field by Department staff and although not forming part of the specifications, properties such as compaction, smoothness, and asphalt cement content were monitored. This paper is an account of our experiences and lessons learned from the recent application of HIR undertaken within the Province of PEI.
Tack coat materials are used to provide sufficient bond between an existing asphalt concrete layer and a new asphalt concrete overlay and/or in-between two lifts of newly placed asphalt concrete. Most of the time, agencies and contractors rely solely on emulsified bituminous products for use as tack coats. Recent developments in tack coat materials are focusing on fast curing and non-tracking emulsions. The objective of this project is to evaluate the performance of several tack coat materials in Saskatchewan climate through a field study and a laboratory-testing program. Ten test sections were constructed in August 2017 on a two-way, two-lane rural highway (Highway 12) near Blaine Lake, Saskatchewan. Construction and installation of the tack coat materials was completed over two days to eliminate any variability due to weather conditions. A post-construction inspection was conducted in September 2017 to document any surface distresses related to the construction process. A distress survey will be conducted following the spring season of each year for 5 years. Core samples were collected in September 2017 to evaluate the initial bond strength of the tack coat materials. Core samples will be collected following the spring season of each year to evaluate the degradation of bond strength over time. Findings from this project will be used to update the approved tack coat materials list and provide recommendations and guidelines for construction best practices. This paper introduces the experiment, discusses the products used, and provides a summary of observations from the field component of the project.
Whether transportation engineers love it or are skeptical about it, emerging vehicle technologies have led an evolution converting traditional gasoline driven vehicles to connected vehicles, electrical cars, and autonomous vehicles. Connected vehicles are already here in certain forms and reportedly by some to be fully functional by 2023. Today we communicate with other drivers around us and are connected to the world via the internet. The car manufacturer Volvo has announced that all their cars will be made electric in two years. In the progress of autonomous vehicles we are at level two or three out of the five levels of development as defined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, with some optimists boasting that full automation can be achieved as early as 2025. Irrespective, the question is not if but when transportation engineers will come face-to-face with such reality. The implications are profound. It will mean that transportation engineers need to equip themselves with new skills to avoid becoming obsolete. Universities will have to conduct researches in this area and to reassess their transportation curriculum to see if they are still relevant and sufficient. Professional organizations such as the Transportation Association of Canada (TAC) and the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) may have to re-adjust their programs and change its agenda to suit the needs of the industry and their members. Government bodies and highway authorities must re-position themselves if they are to continue to function effectively. These agencies will be faced with the dilemma of how to balance the retrofitting of existing infrastructure with the construction of new facilities to allow the new breed of vehicles to operate smoothly. Historically the study of transportation is a multi-disciplinary science but this emerging trend will bring it to a new and higher level. Future transportation engineers will be expected to have at least a working knowledge in areas such as information technology, communication science, computer algorithm, human factor safety engineering, public engagement, business and legal environments, and social media management. The knowledge which we have accrued in the past at universities such as geometric design, traffic flow theory, transportation planning, travel demand modeling, etc., may no longer be sufficient. Standards organizations will have to work on setting up protocol architectures that are interchangeable, interoperable and expandable. This paper explores the many issues facing the transportation engineers and the industry and discusses how best they should position themselves for the future. It sets the stage for further research. Commercial sectors including automobile manufacturers (hardware) and IT companies (software) are already on board. The time for transportation professionals to jump onto the bandwagon is now; and arguably not a moment too soon.
Drainage quality, as defined by AASHTO 1993, is affected by parameters related to subsurface materials properties as well as parameters related to roadway geometry. Hydraulic conductivity (permeability) of unbound granular materials (UGM) used in base and subbase layers construction is one of the major properties that influence drainage quality. This study investigates the variations in hydraulic conductivity and drainage quality resulting from modifying UGM gradation parameters. The considered UGM gradation parameters were porosity, fines content, and effective size of the blend. Field and laboratory testing of hydraulic conductivity were performed in order to quantify the benefits gained from basing UGM blends on performance related parameters. The test results were also used to investigate the reliability of the estimated hydraulic conductivity from the Moulton prediction model. Several dense-graded UGM gradations of gravel were evaluated in this study. Permeability field testing was carried out on those gradations in multiple highway construction projects throughout Manitoba. The field testing utilized the double ring infiltrometer test for measuring the in-situ hydraulic conductivity of compacted base layers. In addition, UGM samples from each construction project were collected for further laboratory testing of hydraulic conductivity using the rigid-wall permeameter. Results from field and laboratory testing were used to provide performance-based range of values for drainage quality corresponding to the range of UGM gradation parameters investigated in this study. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were compared to values and prediction models reported in the literature for dense-graded UGM. Moulton’s hydraulic conductivity prediction model was found to provide an approximation of hydraulic conductivity values of the studied materials.
As per the five-year provincial roads plan (2017 edition), the Department of Transportation and Works of Government of Newfoundland and Labrador shifted its focus from the construction of new roads to the maintenance and rehabilitation of existing highways. With more than 270 km of road planned to be rehabilitated/upgraded in the province by 2022, appropriate strategies are needed to maintain and rehabilitate the roads. Many past studies reported that the life of overlays primarily depends on the interface condition between the existing pavement and overlay. In addition to this, the overlay fails mainly due to lack of proper maintenance for existing pavement before constructing the overlay. In this paper, Finite Element-based software program (ABAQUS) was employed to evaluate the interlayer damages between the existing pavement and overlay. Various interface conditions are modelled for evaluating the performance of the overlay. The results obtained from the analysis could help in selecting appropriate maintenance strategies for developing a sustainable overlay construction specification.
By 2041 the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) will be home to over 10 million people, all of whom travel around the region by different modes, at different times of day and have different lifestyles. Accommodating all these different types of travellers was a challenge Metrolinx embraced as we started to draft the next Regional Transportation Plan (RTP). The Draft 2041 Regional Transportation Plan (Draft Plan) is an update to the Big Move, the GTHAs first regional transportation plan, released in 2008, which takes a people centered planning approach. Two tactics, the GTHA Regional Traveller Personas and the Residents’ Reference Panel set the stage and helped shape the people centred direction of the Draft Plan. Both strategies allowed Metrolinx to tests the policies, programs and directions against the views and needs of GTHA residents. Through in person sessions with the Residents’ Reference Panel and the focus groups and surveys used to develop the GTHA Traveller Personas, Metrolinx gathered a wealth of data related to the attitudes, values, and priorities for the people of the GTHA. The two tactics are not limited in their use to the Draft Plan. Following the development of the GTHA Regional Traveller Personas Metrolinx held several sessions with Metrolinx Staff, Senior Management, and municipal partners who saw the value in this work. Municipalities have also seen the value in this work and are starting to look into developing their own personas to better understand their local residents and users of their transportation system. The Residents’ Reference Panel has attracted attention up to the Metrolinx Board of Directors as a valuable resource for planning and by external partners as a clear voice for the needs of GTHA residents’. The results of the panel and persona work have been shared with our partners and all levels at Metrolinx, and used to inform Metrolinx marketing campaigns and business development, in addition to feeding into the Draft 2041 Regional Transportation Plan.
A large portion of highways in New Brunswick are adjacent to streams, rivers, lakes, and ocean waters. Erosion and instability can occur due to shifting water ways, ice scour, and sea level rise. Geotechnical assets affected by these environmental conditions could not be efficiently managed using traditional methods. During the summer of 2017, a Geotechnical Asset Management (GAM) program was developed by the New Brunswick Department of Infrastructure (NBDTI) and the Université de Moncton (UdeM). The purpose of the GAM program is to catalogue the geotechnical assets and their conditions, and prioritize repair efforts. Over 400 km of road within New Brunswick was selected for the trial. All embankments along these routes were evaluated and ranked according to their condition. It was concluded that the GAM method for collecting geotechnical data was effective when comparing conditions of many sections of embankments along roadways that are experiencing erosion or instability of the road embankment.
FPInnovations, in cooperation with the Canadian Forest Service, Alberta Transportation, Laval University i3C Chair, and the City of Edmonton recently completed a review of Alberta’s starting threshold for initiating winter weight hauling. The threshold was 1 m frost depth but neither Alberta, nor any other jurisdiction, had undertaken a formal engineering analysis of the structural capacity of freezing pavements. The objective of this project was to determine the minimum frost depth at which hauling at winter weight premiums in Alberta could start without compromising pavement service life. The paper describes the process used to develop a robust, validated, model capable of estimating the structural capacity of freezing highway pavements. This included analysis of freezing patterns in Alberta, resilient modulus testing of frozen roadbed materials, full scale accelerated trafficking test of two freezing pavements, and model development and validation. Based on this work, in December 2017, Alberta Transportation reduced the starting frost depth threshold used in its winter weight policy from 1 m to 0.75 m. Substantial benefits to the public, forest industry, and the heavy haul industry are expected from a longer winter weight period and (or) a shallower frost depth threshold. The forest industry is predicted to realize $1.63M in haul savings for each additional week of hauling with winter weights. Given a shallower frost depth requirement, more participation in the winter weight program in the south of the Province and during warmer winters will be possible. The Province is predicted to see savings in pavement rehabilitation costs of between $1M and $2.5M per year arising from some truck volume moving from summer to winter.
Unpaved roads account for approximately 60% of Canada’s public road network. Maintaining gravel roads is a major activity for many municipalities and requires regular interventions to provide smooth and safe riding surfaces for road users. Municipalities spend millions of dollars every year on gravel road maintenance and rehabilitation activities. A comprehensive road management system that includes their gravel road network could significantly improve a municipality’s ability to manage their operating and capital budgets. In 2017, the authors undertook a survey of Canadian municipalities related to gravel road maintenance practices. A total of 97 municipalities responded to the survey, representing around 40,000 km of gravel roads. The survey’s main goal was to capture the state-of-practice in gravel road management used by Canadian municipalities and to investigate to what extent municipalities collect data about their gravel roads. This paper discusses the results of that survey and investigates the need for better decision support tools to manage gravel roads. The paper also discusses the required components of a gravel road management system (GRMS), key operational and maintenance consideration, and the implementation of a GRMS through a case study.
On June 24, 2015, County Council unanimously passed a motion to commit to 100% renewable energy by 2050. Oxford County was the first municipal government in Ontario to commit to a 100% renewable energy target at the time, and only the second in Canada after Vancouver, British Columbia. Oxford’s renewable energy commitment stems from the Future Oxford Community Sustainability Plan (2015), which includes specific targets and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), promote green construction, and promote low-carbon transportation options. Efficiency and conservation measures are considered the first steps towards realizing a 100% renewable energy target. With exhaust emissions from trucks, buses, and automobiles being major contributors to GHG, exploring what the County could do to lessen its impact was, and remains, a priority. Exhaust emissions are major contributors to health issues, including triggering lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis in vulnerable members of society. Municipal fleet operators, in general, are increasingly aware of their fleet’s impact on the environment. It is estimated that Ontario’s municipal fleets, including transit, contribute approximately 43% of Canada’s estimated 1.74 MT of municipal fleet emissions. At Oxford County, we have chosen to take a leadership role in dealing with these concerns. Not only out of a sense of environmental responsibility, but also for financial considerations: fuel is the fleet’s second largest operating expense for the County after salaries and wages. To assist the County in understanding its current fleet and the potential opportunities, in 2015, Oxford County, in conjunction with Fleet Challenge, developed a “Green Fleet Plan.” The Green Fleet Plan outlines opportunities to reduce engine and GHG with strategies based on technology and implementing or refreshing best practices.