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Communicating Science: A Practrical Guide for Engineers and Physical Scientists

ven, 09/29/2017 - 15:34
Communicating Science: A Practrical Guide for Engineers and Physical Scientists
by Boxman,R; Boxman,E.
2017.
US7 FWP600 2017C57 - REF


Communicating Science is a textbook and reference on scientific writing oriented primarily at researchers in the physical sciences and engineering. It is written from the perspective of an experienced researcher. It draws on the authors' experience of teaching and working with both native English speakers and English as a Second Language (ESL) writers. For the range of topics covered, this book is relatively short and tersely written, in order to appeal to busy researchers. Communicating Science offers comprehensive guidance on: Graduate students and early career researchers will be guided through the researcher's basic communication tasks: writing theses, journal papers, and internal reports, presenting lectures and posters, and preparing research proposals. Extensive best practice examples and analyses of common problems are presented. Advanced researchers who aim to commercialize their research results will be introduced to business plans and patents, so that they can communicate optimally with patent attorneys and business analysts. Likewise, advanced researchers will be assisted in conveying the results of their research to the industrial and business community, governmental circles, and the general public in the chapter on popular media.

Technical Writing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists

jeu, 09/28/2017 - 20:32
Technical Writing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists
by Laplante,PA.
2012.
What Every Engineer Should Know: vol. 47.
US7 FCT___ 2012T28 - REF


Engineers and scientists of all types are often required to write reports, summaries, manuals, guides, and so forth. While these individuals certainly have had some sort of English or writing course, it is less likely that they have had any instruction in the special requirements of technical writing. This book enables readers to write, edit, and publish materials of a technical nature, including books, articles, reports, and electronic media.

A Short Term Outlook Model for Canadian Grain Transportation Requirements

mer, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
A Short Term Outlook Model for Canadian Grain Transportation Requirements
by Gregory,A.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P73 - INTERNET


The objective of this paper is to outline a potential framework for estimating grain tonnage through marine export corridors given an estimate for near term crop production. This methodology represents the first iteration of a short term predictive model for grain transport. The intent is to produce a monitoring tool that will provide forward looking guidance as to near term transport demand for grain. Near term is defined as the four quarters of an upcoming crop year. The end goal of the framework would be to provide an alert mechanism which will identify situations where the grain export supply chain is not performing according to its normal historical operating parameters.

Western Grain Exceptionalism: Transportation Policy Change Since 1968

mer, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
Western Grain Exceptionalism: Transportation Policy Change Since 1968
by Earl,PD; Prentice,BE.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P72 - INTERNET


The “exceptionalism” referred to in the title of this paper is largely, but not exclusively, rooted in Canada’s grain transportation policies – and specifically rooted in the former Crow’s Nest Pass rates on grain that came into effect in 1899. Their level was originally set under an agreement between the federal government and the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1925, the rates were legislated and extended to cover all rail movements of grain from the designated Prairie Provinces. They were more accurately called “the statutory rates,” but in everyday parlance, continued to be referred to simply as “The Crow.” Since 1982, the Crow rates have undergone several modifications, but unlike all other commodities in Canada, grain freight rates are still subject to control. The purpose of this paper is to trace grain transportation policy since the National Transportation Act (1967) and to consider the wisdom of its continuance.

Government Hopper Cars and the Canadian Grain Handling and Transportation System

mer, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
Government Hopper Cars and the Canadian Grain Handling and Transportation System
by Pratte,S.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P71 - INTERNET


Canada’s Grain Handling and Transportation System (GHTS) is a complex, multi-actor supply chain that transports the collective output of Western Canadian grain farmers to a variety of domestic and international markets. Over the last three decades the GHTS has had to address the handling needs of a harvest that has swelled from 40 to 60 million tonnes annually. One of the critical underpinnings in this supply chain is a fleet of about 22,000 covered hopper cars that are used to gather grain from a prairie rail network spanning over 17,000 route-miles in length. This fleet is an amalgam of equipment supplied by the federal government, two provincial governments, both major railways, shippers and third-party lessors. These hopper cars also represent a mix of both old and new equipment, that vary significantly in terms of physical size and carrying capacity. This paper surveys the evolution of the current hopper-car fleet, its present condition, and its ability to provide for the future handling needs of the GHTS. Finally, it points to some of the practical considerations inherent in replacing the publicly-supplied portion of this fleet, which now represents approximately half of the cars in service, as they approach the end of their economic life.

A Survey of Awareness and Importance of Inland Port Features

mer, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
A Survey of Awareness and Importance of Inland Port Features
by Larson,PD; Adelman,M.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P70 - INTERNET


CentrePort is an inland port initiative located in Winnipeg, and funded by the federal and provincial governments. This paper explores awareness and importance of CentrePort’s features, in the minds of local logisticians, and its connection to lean logistics. CentrePort is roughly 2,300 km. from the nearest Canadian seaports (Montreal and Vancouver), and 100 km. from the U.S. border. The paper is organized into four more sections. The first section is a literature review, covering inland ports and lean logistics. The second section outlines the research questions and methods used. Statistical results are presented in the third section. The fourth section draws conclusions, including implications for CentrePort, supply chain practitioners and public policy makers.

Analyzing the Transportation Impacts of Free Trade Agreements

mer, 09/27/2017 - 19:34
Analyzing the Transportation Impacts of Free Trade Agreements
by Bachmann,C.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P69 - INTERNET


Canada has recently progressed several Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). The country has recently brought the Canada Korea Free Trade Agreement (CKFTA) into force, and has concluded the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) involving the Pacific Rim countries. Previous FTAs suggest sizeable impacts on Canada’s trade may be imminent. The objective of this research is to begin analyzing how CKFTA and CETA will impact Canada’s transportation infrastructure and also what the resulting capacity effects will be on Canada’s global competiveness.

Building Resilience to Counter the Impact of International Supply Chain Vulnerabilities

mar, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Building Resilience to Counter the Impact of International Supply Chain Vulnerabilities
by Allen,R; Whelen,M; Khan,A.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P68 - INTERNET


To satisfy one of the pre-requisites for success as a competitive trading nation and to be able to attract large-scale new investments as a part of global value chain, a trading nation’s international supply chains have to be efficient as well as resilient to potential disruptions. Around the world, policy and planning efforts are underway to achieve these objectives. As a step in this direction, this paper contributes considerations for improving resiliency of the national component of the international supply chain. Evidence-based information suggests that the national component of the international supply chain can be adversely impacted due to cascading effects of a variety of nature-induced and other events that occur beyond national borders. In order to reduce the impact of such supply chain events on industries and businesses, measures to improve resilience are to be planned and considerations for their implementation are required. In this paper, selected multimodal international supply chains are defined for non-bulk, high value groups of commodities for illustration purposes. Sources of vulnerabilities and supply chain components that are likely to be impacted are identified. The cascade of effects is traced through the supply chain using systems analysis concepts. Next, ideas are advanced on resiliency measures to counter the effect of international supply chain vulnerabilities. Illustrative examples provided are based on evidence-based information. Finally, suggestions are made on the implementation of resilience measures by stakeholders such as manufacturing industries and businesses.

Application of Vehicle Routing Optimization in Improving the Flow of Mail to a Processing Plant

mar, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Application of Vehicle Routing Optimization in Improving the Flow of Mail to a Processing Plant
by Iman,N; Amir,K; Matin,F.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P67 - INTERNET


A Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) involves pick-up/delivery tours generating on a network or its subsets in order to meet nodes, given a set of constraints and the need to optimize one or several fixed objectives. Network at postal services is represented as a graph on which nodes stand for customers, point of service, depot, sorting facilities while arcs stand for real links (i.e. road, rail and air services). Hence each arc has a traversing time and cost while time window and demand are associated factors to the nodes. This dynamic problem could get more sophisticated if several heterogeneous or homogenous fleets are involved at several periods. This paper presents the results from of a practical application conducted on a subset of network for a target group of customers in the Greater Toronto Region (GTA) network. The rest of this paper will describes different approaches to metaheuristics method covered in literature followed by a nobble ACO method applied for GTA case and finally concludes the paper with remarks and an insight to future works.

Resilience Measures for Reducing teh Imapct of Nature-Induced Disruptions in Transportation Supply Chains

mar, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Resilience Measures for Reducing teh Imapct of Nature-Induced Disruptions in Transportation Supply Chains
by Whelen,M; Khan,A; Tardif,LP; Ramsey,D.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P66 - INTERNET


The transportation system in general and the supply chain in particular is vitally important to the economy and the quality of life. A supply chain in any country has vulnerabilities and is subject to risk of disruption. In Canada, factors such as long distances, geographical diversity, geological and geotechnical characteristics of some regions, weather extremes, and long-term climate change-induced factors pose challenges, in addition to other factors such as labour disruptions. This paper describes nature-induced vulnerabilities in the Asia-Pacific Gateway Corridor (APGC) freight supply chain and defines resilience measures that could mitigate adverse effects on stakeholders. Supply chains are introduced for containerized commodities and coal, which is moved as a bulk commodity. Vulnerabilities are identified and characterized on the basis of historical evidence and scientific analysis. Finally, the need for inherent and dynamic resilience is noted. Due to space constraints, the analysis of vulnerabilities focuses on containerized imports.

Method of Data Integration for GPS and Roadside Intercept Survey Data

mar, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Method of Data Integration for GPS and Roadside Intercept Survey Data
by Zhu,S; Roorda,M.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P65 - INTERNET


The Commercial Vehicle Survey (CVS) has been one of Ministry of Transportation Ontario’s (MTO) main instruments for obtaining information about freight vehicle flows on the provincial transportation system. The CVS is a roadside survey that intercepts truck trips at data collection sites to gather information about inter-city truck flows as well as some urban truck flows. The survey is conducted every 5 years, and the most recent available data were collected in the period from 2010 to 2014, and is referred to as the 2012 CVS. During the survey, the intercepted truck drivers were interviewed to collect information about vehicle type, trip movement, and cargo contents. The 2012 CVS encompasses over 200 data collection sites and a total of 45,000 interviews (Ministry of Transportation Ontario, 2015). While the CVS is an extensive data collection effort, the sample collected through CVS is still a small portion of the entire truck population that flows through Ontario. A new source of data is also becoming accessible to the MTO. Probe GPS tracking data from fleet management providers such as Shaw and ATRI have a greater geographic coverage of truck movement than intercept surveys, resulting in better representation of the truck population. It is estimated that GPS data cover as much as 50% of total vehicle kilometers travelled by trucks (Ministry of Transportation Ontario, 2015). However, the GPS tracking data are collected automatically by a device on the truck without any interaction from the driver, and the device lacks intelligence to collect data with more complexity such as cargo content. In summary, the CVS contains highly detailed information about truck flows at the points of intercept but lacks population coverage, while GPS tracking data provide a wider coverage of truck movements but lack useful supplementary information about the tour. The purpose of this study is to apply data fusion methods (D'Orazio, Di Zio, & Scanu, 2006) to integrate these two data sets to produce a more useful combined source of information for modelling and policy analysis. The GPS data and the CVS data complement each other nicely in theory, but in practice the two sources of data have different levels of aggregation, sample methods, and statistical precision, all of which are common problems of data fusion (Polak, 2006). While challenges exist, the merits of data fusion are notable. First, it avoids the costly option of conducting an entirely new survey when the variables of interest exist in multiple previous surveys (Van Der Puttan, Kok, & Gupta, 2002). Second, it provides a means to analyze variables from different surveys within one platform (Bayart, Bonnel, & Morency, 2008). Third, it provides an approach to address the lack of comparability between data when a mix of survey methodologies are used (Bayart, Bonnel, & Morency, 2008).

Expansion of a GPS Truck Trip Sample to Remove Bias and Obtain Representative Flows for Ontario

mar, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Expansion of a GPS Truck Trip Sample to Remove Bias and Obtain Representative Flows for Ontario
by Gingerich,K; Maoh,H; Anderson,W.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P64 - INTERNET


This paper identified two types of bias, industry and distance, found in a sample of GPS derived truck trips. A method was established to remove the industry bias using trip rates and expanding by the population of firms in a given zone. In addition, distance bias was accounted for by utilizing the IPF method to match total estimated zonal production and attraction (from the first expansion) while maintaining the origin-destination patterns obtained from the 2006 CVS survey created by MTO. A second expansion was then applied by optimizing the expanded GPS totals with the truck totals from survey station points located along major Ontario routes. The total trip productions and attractions generated from the analysis provided a better representation of truck trips in Ontario compared to the original sample while closely matching the aggregate totals observed on the road network. However, the microscopic behaviour of individual trips is lost at an aggregate level. To retain the travel behaviour of vehicles, we plan to utilize the original sample to synthesize a full population of trips by using methods such as combinatorial optimization (Ryan et al., 2009). In such a case, the synthesis algorithm can be used to ensure that the aggregate zonal totals by industry type are maintained. Such a method has been applied before for expanded trip rates. For example, Goulias et al. (2014) used population synthesis to expand a household survey in California. After the trips are synthesized, our data can then be used in microscopic transportation models (such as truck tours) without the biases inherent in the original GPS sample.

Advanced Technology Adoption and Use in Canada's Transportation Sector

mar, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Advanced Technology Adoption and Use in Canada's Transportation Sector
by Bacon,SP; Dubé,V; McKeown,L.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P63 - INTERNET


This paper examines the adoption rates of advanced technologies by the Canadian transportation sector and its industries against the average rate across all surveyed industries. After presenting the adoption rates of the most widely adopted technologies, the paper compares transportation with 7 other sectors of the Canadian economy. Next, attention shifts to the objectives that transportation enterprises set by adopting advanced technology, as well as the obstacles that were faced, and what measures they took to overcome them. The paper concludes by pointing to future advanced technologies, such as electric vehicles, autonomous transportation, Smart Cities, and others, which are poised to impact the transportation sector. And this impact will create new challenges and opportunities for transportation enterprises.

Canadian Coastal Shipping and CETA: Some Lessons from Four Market Deregulation Cases

lun, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Canadian Coastal Shipping and CETA: Some Lessons from Four Market Deregulation Cases
by Laribi,S; Guy,E.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P62 - INTERNET


After several years of negotiation, Canada and the European Union have come to a final agreement on the Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) and the text is currently going through ratification process. The paper seeks to highlight some possible CETA’s consequences for domestic Canadian shipping markets. It uses industrial economics analytical tools drawn from a Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP) paradigm. From a literature review, it reconstructs four cases of past coastal shipping deregulation that occurred internationally: Philippine, Greece, Taiwan and New Zealand. The observed transformations are then characterized in terms of the SCP lens. The approach does not claim to forecast market transformations in Canada’s coastal trade but to underline some common trends reported in different coastal shipping markets after a deregulation process.

Microsimulating the Spatial Distribution of Commercial Vehicles by the Location of Their Owned Establishments

lun, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Microsimulating the Spatial Distribution of Commercial Vehicles by the Location of Their Owned Establishments
by Hagag,A; Maoh,H.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P61 - INTERNET


Freight movement is a major process contributing to economic growth and prosperity. It is a fairly dynamic process due to the rapid changes arising from complex supply chain structures, logistics and technological advancements. The rapid changes and growth in commercial vehicle movements in recent years have led to a surge of studies that focus on understanding the processes giving rise to these movements. To date, little has been done to study and model vehicle ownership of business establishments. However, the number of owned commercial vehicles is a significant factor that explains the number of generated commercial trips (Madar, 2014). The lack of studies on the topic is believed to be due to the absence of detailed commercial vehicle data. This paper addresses the problem of data scarcity by employing synthetic population techniques to microsimulate the number of commercial vehicles owned by all individual business establishments that engage in delivering goods or services in the Windsor Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). The case presented here uses the combinatorial optimization technique (CO) to synthesize the number of commercial vehicles owned by business establishments that engage in commercial travel activities (i.e. delivering goods or services).

Modelling Freight Outsourcing Decisions

lun, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Modelling Freight Outsourcing Decisions
by Mostafa,TS; Roorda,MJ.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P60 - INTERNET


Freight outsourcing decisions influence freight system dynamics. In this paper we tried to answer some basic questions related to outsourcing such as: what influences outsourcing, how the economy affects outsourcing, what influences the decision of international outsourcing, and whether innovation and technological advancements are significant to outsourcing. We present models of outsourcing of goods production and logistics. The models consider the effect of firm characteristics and strategic focus, industry related variables, economic conditions, location characteristics, and advances in innovation and technology on outsourcing. Generally, when a firm is focused on the core competency of their production, they are more likely to outsource their freight related activities. This can be explained by the positive sign of the effect of employment size, economic indicator, and the use of advanced technologies in the production process on outsourcing decisions. The models are to be used in a microsimulation platform for the purpose of agent-based firm micro-modelling.

Keeping Trucking In-House: A Dynamic Muti-Item Shipment Consolidation Model for a Manufacturer-Distributor

lun, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Keeping Trucking In-House: A Dynamic Muti-Item Shipment Consolidation Model for a Manufacturer-Distributor
by Ülkü,MA.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P59 - INTERNET


From the perspective of a manufacturer-distributor (MD) such as Procter & Gamble, who manufactures a variety of products (item types) and who employs its own fleet of trucks to convey freight to its Distribution Centre (DC) from where individual orders are paddled to the retailers (R1, R2 etc.), what is the best consolidation and dispatch policy, and under which conditions? We aim to shed light on these practical questions from a dynamic modeling approach. In this research, we introduce Dynamic Multi-Item Shipment Consolidation (DMISCL). Being a better representation of logistics industry practices, DMISCL arises when the orders (package, or less-than truckload (LTL) shipments) come for varying types of product, and it requires the decisions of continuing to consolidate a load (hold), versus shipping it now (dispatch) to be made at the arrival time of each order. DMISCL is a better representation of industrial practices.

Solar-Powered Vactrain - A Preliminary Analysis

ven, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Solar-Powered Vactrain - A Preliminary Analysis
by Narayan,S.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P58 - INTERNET


This paper analyzes a high-speed electric train running inside an evacuated tunnel that is powered by solar panels mounted above the tunnel that continuously produce 137 kW of average power per km of track. This train will be totally weather-proof and consume much less power than today’s high speed trains, so that surplus solar electricity from the solar panels can be profitably sold to the grid. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that this 500 km/h solar-powered vactrain can be profitable at a ticket price of 0.29 to 0.40 U.S dollars per km per passenger so that it will be cheaper than air travel.

Rail Level of Service Decisions and Shipper Service Requirements

ven, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Rail Level of Service Decisions and Shipper Service Requirements
by Gallagher,R; Tougas,FEJ.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P57 - INTERNET


Sections 113 – 116 (the “LOS Provisions”) of the Canada Transportation Act (the “Act”) set out a federal railway company’s level of service (“LOS”) obligations. These are commonly referred to as the common carrier obligations. They require rail carriers to provide “adequate and suitable accommodation” for shippers’ traffic. The LOS Provisions were not sufficient to prevent shippers from experiencing regular rail carrier service failures in the period leading up to 2007, following which the Government of Canada appointed the federal Rail Freight Service Review panel. The panel’s report recommended, and in 2013 the Government ultimately adopted, amendments to the Act that granted shippers a right to a service level agreement (“SLA”), failing which the shipper might refer the matter to arbitration to establish the terms of a SLA. During the winter of 2013-14, rail service deteriorated substantially. Many shippers remain dissatisfied with rail service levels and many express frustration at their inability to do anything about it.

Improved Financial Performance of CP and CN Over the Past Twenty Years: Factors Contributing to the Improvement

ven, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Improved Financial Performance of CP and CN Over the Past Twenty Years: Factors Contributing to the Improvement
by Cairns,M.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P56 - INTERNET


Over the course of the past two decades since the privatization of CN in 1995, and the further economic deregulation in 1996, each of CP and CN has seen their operating ratios improve by some 30%. This paper will examine how these impressive improvements were achieved – the changes to the networks, operations, freight rates, commodity mix, and labour, and their contributions to the improvement.

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