Alternative Intersections and Interchanges (A.I.I.s) are designs that improve operations and safety for motorized traffic by strategically adjusting the geometric features at a given location, working on the general principle of redistributing motor vehicle demand at an intersection in an attempt to limit the need to add capacity with new lanes to improve traffic flow.
The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 948: Guide for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Alternative and Other Intersections and Interchanges provides specific guidance for four common A.I.I.s: Diverging Diamond Interchange (DDI), Restricted Crossing U-Turn (RCUT), Median U-Turn (MUT), and Displaced Left-Turn (DLT).
These designs may involve reversing traffic lanes from their traditional directions, which may introduce confusion and create safety issues for pedestrians and bicyclists. In addition, pedestrian paths and bicycle facilities may cross through islands or take different routes than expected. These new designs are likely to require additional information for drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians as well as better accommodations for pedestrians and bicyclists, including pedestrians with disabilities.
This report is available from the US Transportation Research Board web site at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/181781.aspx