Our initiative set out to create a three-dimensional (3D) virtual learning tool that allows instructors and students to view and interact with models in a virtual simulated platform. The process involved: 1) Streamlining the 3D model creation procedure 2) Building a model viewer for parts familiarization and task training 3) Creating an efficient production workflow for getting content into the custom model viewer.
Almost all Saskatchewan highways have long stretches of rural roads through flat agricultural land with little roadside development and very few intersections. Traffic volumes are often relatively low on these rural highway sections and the travel speeds on these highways are normally high. However these rural highways often have short sections passing through small urban communities. These highway sections in small urban communities often have higher traffic volumes than the adjacent rural highway sections. These highway sections in small urban communities may have to accommodate through traffic as well as provide access to local businesses and residences. At some of these locations, due to economic and population growth, transportation needs have evolved beyond what these highway sections and communities were originally designed for. Highways at some of these locations may also function as local community main streets, which mean that these highway sections can be characterized by frequent intersections, property accesses, pedestrians and cyclists, school zones, and roadside parking. As a consequence unique safety concerns are identified. For example vehicles accustomed to the high travelling speed outside the towns tend to drive fast and pose risks to local traffic, pedestrians, and cyclists in towns. Accommodation of the local traffic and vulnerable road users while maintaining appropriate mobility is very important in these situations. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure has conducted safety studies for highway sections near and within towns’ urban limits to proactively identify safety issues for improvement. The first phase study was for highways through small towns with population less than 1,000 and the second phase study was for highways through larger towns with population greater than 1,000. The studies used methodologies such as stakeholders (ministry regional traffic engineers, municipal officials, and RCMP officers) surveys and discussions to identify situations/locations with potential safety risks, site visits and assessment, GIS analysis tool in collision data analysis and assessment of roadway geometrics and signings etc. The studies have identified some common opportunities for safety improvements system wide and have also identified some safety concerns at some specific locations in towns. Countermeasures have been recommended such as establishing graduated speed transitions on highway approaches to towns, improving conspicuity of intersections, and enhancing highway sections in town centres as community streets among others for traffic safety improvements.
As towns and cities throughout North America begin to show signs of aging, the number of emerging mature neighbourhoods and communities within municipalities has burgeoned. The rapid growth of these areas has created transportation safety problems of a magnitude and nature that are hitherto unknown to governing bodies. Mature neighbourhoods are defined as those communities developed in the historic past that often consist of older and smaller dwellings built on properties with a sizable lot in quiet streets. As the supply of large properties in towns continues to decrease and the costs of developable land continues to increase, the demand and pressure to rebuild infills in mature neighbourhoods is expected to rise. Developers, or existing owners, are now looking into purchasing or converting existing properties and turning them into larger or multi-purpose residences that may be incompatible with the existing built-form, and which would create different safety issues on transportation. Many municipalities such as the County of Strathcona and the City of Edmonton in Alberta are currently conducting studies to formulate Mature Neighbourhood Overlay (MNO) policies with a view to lessen the threat of loss of character in these redevelopment areas, to protect green spaces, and to balance needs with zoning regulations. While these initiatives to address the land use impacts are necessary and commendable, the same corresponding attention have not been paid to the impact on transportation that are often as challenging, given tight existing conditions and constraints. To be successful, care must be taken to ensure that these infill developments will not create a negative impact, a perceived or real hazard, or an unacceptable increase in traffic on local roads. This paper sets out to explore some of the more critical issues on transportation in mature neighbourhoods. It examines the unique features within these communities such as the blending of future houses with existing buildings; demographics of residents; traffic calming measures and their implementation; curbside management; geometric conditions and constraints; driveway accesses, setbacks, and parking; roadway dieting; conditions created by senior living; high and low end condominiums, etc.; as they relate to transportation and traffic safety. Strategies, policies and guideline solutions are suggested. The importance of public engagement is highlighted. Case studies using Strathcona County as an example are cited. It is recommended that more encompassing studies in the future should be carried out by research bodies to formulate a best practice guideline document.
The Quebec Ministry of Transport, Sustainable Mobility and Transportation Electrification (Ministère des Transports, de la Mobilité durable et de l’Électrification des transports, hereinafter MTMDET) is responsible for the winter maintenance of an extensive road network. In Quebec, local roads (107,000 km) are under municipal jurisdiction, while the MTMDET is responsible for all provincial roads and highways (31,000 km). The larger part (66%) of the provincial road network is maintained by private sector companies. The rest is maintained by the MTMDET (20%) and municipalities (14%). Each year, the MTMDET uses over 800,000 tonnes of de-icing agent on its road network in the winter months, which has a considerable negative impact to varying degrees on nearby flora and fauna, water quality, soil quality and infrastructure. Water quality tests conducted in several lakes close to urban areas across the province of Quebec has shown that, in certain locations, chloride concentrations are steadily increasing. And in a few locations, these concentrations have surpassed the chronic toxicity threshold for aquatic life. Considering that sodium chloride’s impact on the environment and on roadway infrastructures is well documented, the responsible use and management of this product is of primordial importance.
The 2nd Concession is a major north-south arterial corridor under the jurisdiction of The Regional Municipality of York (York Region). Located in the Town of East Gwillimbury, Ontario, the corridor crosses a popular conservation area and recreational trail, situated in the watershed of the East Holland River which is managed by the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA). York Region and the Town of East Gwillimbury are undergoing tremendous growth in population and employment. The 2nd Concession Project improves mobility and enhances the environment with sustainable, context sensitive infrastructure in response to growth. The innovative, enhanced public outreach program included early and consistent stakeholder engagement with mandatory and non-mandatory public open house meetings, kitchen table discussions with residents, site visits, a “visioning” workshop and regular newsletters. This established a high degree of trust and resulted in early stakeholder buy-in which accelerated project timelines and saved tax dollars. The early identification of environmental enhancements resulted in a design that improves mobility for all corridor users including pedestrians and cyclists and promotes active transportation.
Civil and Geotechnical Engineering design practice primarily considers general slope stability, with surficial slope stability addressed with less design rigour. Long term surficial slope stability is commonly accomplished with vegetation in the form of grass lined slopes, where detailing of same is accomplished by the slope stability engineer, a vegetation specialist or an erosion control practitioner. When removing in-situ organic material pre-construction, there is common misconception that topsoil replaced post-construction must be equal to, or greater than the depth of the original topsoil. Little, if any attention is given to examining the vegetation establishment capacity of the civil grade. Common practice is to place topsoil on top of civil grade with typically insufficient detailing considering mechanical sloughing or organic leaching. With increased slopes, more compacted subgrades and less compacted topsoil, there comes increased likelihood of surficial slope instability. This paper examines surficial slope instability where design detailing may be a contributing factor to long term surficial slope instability; where instability is found within days, months, years or even decades. Further, this paper expands on the potential contribution of the erosion control industry where commonly delivered ‘Best Management Practices’ may contribute to surficial slope instability. Evidence will be brought to support discussion around less topsoil and greater diligence in design detailing, to cause long-term sustainable root establishment in the civil grade for more robust grass liner protection of engineered infrastructure.
Frost susceptible subgrade soils, when exposed to moisture and freezing condition, cause frost heaving on road surfaces. In cold climates, like Manitoba, many road sections experience surface roughness and pavement deterioration due to seasonal frost heaving and melting. Subgrade soils frost heave remedial measures such as removal and replacement, embankment construction using non-frost susceptible materials, soil stabilization or thick pavement structures are generally very costly and/or impractical. Moreover, available guidelines or study results for characterizing soils as frost susceptible and classifying into different severity levels vary widely. Remedial measures or management of frost heave issues also vary among highway agencies. All these variations or factors hinder the selection of an appropriate approach to deal with this issue. In Manitoba, in the past, a subgrade soil was characterized as frost susceptible if it met several characteristics. If a soil was characterized as frost susceptible, the calculated structural number (SN) was increased by 25%. The historical basis for such characterization and a fixed adjustment is unknown. Manitoba has now adopted the “value for money analysis approach” for all design, construction and operational practices. This led to a review of the appropriateness of these method/practice and revise to meet Manitoba’s current needs. Manitoba has completed major changes to frost susceptibility characterization/classification and pavement structure design/analysis for frost susceptible subgrade soils. This led to a more cost-effective and reasonable pavement structure design and management. This paper presents the comparison of various frost susceptibility characterization and classification, Manitoba’s past practice and recent changes, and the impacts of these changes. This paper and presentation may be an educational opportunity for interested individuals or agencies.
Les panneaux d’affichage dynamique de la vitesse sont utilisés dans plusieurs provinces et territoires du Canada. Ils permettent aux conducteurs de voir leur vitesse, habituellement affichée à côté du panneau indiquant la limite de vitesse permise. Ces dispositifs sont destinés à faire prendre conscience aux conducteurs des limites de vitesse en affichant en temps réel la vitesse à laquelle ils conduisent leur véhicule. On a pu constater qu’ils sont efficaces peu de temps après leur installation. Les Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse ont été mises au point afin de définir les meilleures pratiques et de fournir des recommandations pour la conception et l’utilisation de panneaux d’affichage de la vitesse dans le contexte canadien pour diverses situations. Ces Lignes directrices permettent et favorisent l’uniformité dans l’utilisation des dispositifs dans tout le Canada; elles ont été rédigées dans le but de servir de document de référence détaillé complémentaire à utiliser conjointement avec le Manuel canadien de la signalisation routière (MCSR).
Les murs de soutènement de sol stabilisé mécaniquement (MSSM) sont depuis longtemps utilisés comme murs de soutènement, mais il n’est pas toujours évident de déterminer qui est l’ultime responsable de la conception, de l’assurance de la qualité, de la gestion des actifs et de la réparation des murs, ainsi que de la surveillance en service des murs déjà construits, en particulier en cas de problèmes importants relativement à la construction ou la tenue en service. Le présent guide offre aux maîtres d’ouvrages, ingénieurs, fournisseurs et entrepreneurs des MSSM des lignes directrices pratiques en matière de sélection, de conception, de construction et d’inspection de ces ouvrages, surtout dans le cadre de projets de travaux publics. Le guide a été élaboré sur la base de l’examen de la littérature existante, complétée par de l’information transmise par divers intervenants dans ce domaine. Il ne cherche pas à reproduire les très nombreuses lignes directrices de conception déjà publiées, ni l’information connexe. Il vise plutôt à mettre en évidence les diverses facettes de l’état actuel de la pratique au Canada et à proposer des modifications à la pratique actuelle afin de corriger certaines lacunes.
This manual has been developed to assist bridge owners by establishing inspection procedures and evaluation practices that meet the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). The manual has been divided into eight sections, with each section representing a distinct phase of an overall bridge inspection and evaluation program. This edition updates Sections 3: Bridge Management Systems; 4: Inspection; 6: Load Rating; and 7: Fatigue Evaluation of Steel Bridges.
Le Code de bonne pratique pour les revêtements modulaires en pierre naturelle constitue un ouvrage de référence pour la sélection des matériaux (tant des éléments en pierre naturelle, que des matériaux de jointoiement et de couche de pose), la conception et le dimensionnement de projets, la mise en oeuvre et l’entretien des voiries en pierre naturelle. La fabrication d’un élément en pierre naturelle trouvant tout d’abord son origine dans des processus qui datent parfois de plusieurs centaines de millions d’années, une introduction du document consacrée à la géologie trouve tout son sens, d’autant plus que l’aspect et les caractéristiques de la pierre y sont fortement liés. Ce document tient compte de l’évolution des techniques de pose et de mise en oeuvre que l’on a pu observer ces dernières décennies suite à la mise sur le marché de matériaux moins traditionnels. Le code de bonne pratique se veut un document technique de base pour toute personne impliquée dans un projet d’aménagement en pierre naturelle. Il s’adresse aux concepteurs, architectes, entrepreneurs, gestionnaires publics ou privés, ou fournisseurs de matériaux.
Le présent document tente de rencontrer deux objectifs principaux. D’une part, établir une synthèse des connaissances et pratiques à propos des chantiers de nuit en Belgique et à l’étranger et, d’autre part, analyser les avantages et inconvénients du travail de nuit au regard de divers paramètres tels que le trafic (congestion, sécurité) et les travaux (qualité, productivité, conduite des travaux), ainsi que les paramètres sociaux (santé des travailleurs, état des conducteurs), économiques (coût des travaux, coûts indirects aux usagers, etc.) et environnementaux (pollution lumineuse, bruit, etc.). Sur base des références analysées et de l’information reçue, les principaux éléments décisionnels qui orientent le choix du mode d’exploitation d’un chantier routier, y compris le recours au travail de nuit, sont la minimisation des facteurs de gêne (fluidité du trafic) et le maintien d’un niveau acceptable de sécurité sur le tronçon considéré. En particulier, du point de vue de la limitation de l’impact sur le trafic, il s’agit de planifier des travaux de sorte à réduire l’ampleur et la durée de la gêne occasionnée (sans oublier de tenir compte de l’éventuel report de trafic, organisé ou pas, sur d’autres routes). Concrètement, il s’agira, sur base du trafic existant et en fonction de la période à laquelle se déroule le chantier, de conserver un nombre suffisant de voies de circulation afin de maintenir un niveau de service acceptable. Pour ce faire, on recourt souvent à une classification des sections du réseau routier selon leur sensibilité aux restrictions temporaires et partielles de la circulation. Dans ce contexte, le recours au travail de nuit ou en dehors des heures habituelles de travail apparaît comme une option qui s’envisage dès lors que d’autres mesures s’avèrent insuffisantes ou impossibles à mettre en oeuvre: utilisation de la bande d’arrêt d’urgence, réduction temporaire de la largeur des voies, mise en place d’une déviation, exécution des travaux en journée mais en dehors des heures de pointe, le tout selon le type de travaux considéré. Les critiques à propos des chantiers de nuit et leurs nombreux inconvénients sont fréquentes. Cependant, lorsqu’on examine attentivement l’ensemble des facteurs, la différence entre la construction de jour et de nuit n’est pas significative, ni en termes de coût, ni en termes de productivité, de qualité ou de sécurité. Bien entendu, un bon éclairage et un meilleur contrôle de la circulation sont nécessaires, mais surtout, une bonne planification peut atténuer ou limiter l’impact de tous les facteurs moins avantageux de la construction nocturne. De nombreuses stratégies visant à atténuer les risques doivent être considérées au moment de la prise de décision de réaliser les travaux de nuit, de sorte que le processus d’analyse des risques doit commencer dès les premières étapes du développement du projet.
In Canada, the total length of the winter road network is estimated at 10,000 km. These are roads that are usable only in the winter. Nature controls the state of a winter road’s foundation – natural ground and ice surfaces – which needs to be trafficable and able to support the vehicles’ weight. These surfaces are particularly sensitive to climate change. A large number of adaptation measures were developed over the years, which can be applied at the planning, construction and maintenance stages, and for traffic management. We have reached a stage where increasing our fundamental knowledge base is required. This can be done through research and development (R&D). Avenues of investigation include a field tool to characterize winter roads in a more systematic fashion, by combining physical information (e.g. road grades, cross-slopes, width, over-land vs over-water ratio) with all operational and logistical data (e.g. opening and closure dates, nature of goods transported) into an interactive database. This could be used for capacity and multimodal planning, as well as to guide priorities on road realignment and incremental replacement (partial or complete) by all-weather road segments. Several outstanding questions regarding the bearing capacity and deformational behavior of floating ice roads could also be addressed. Topics that need to be investigated include: ice cover strength, how long a vehicle can be parked on the ice, how cracking patterns affect ice integrity, and the investigation of known procedures, techniques and technologies to reinforce an ice cover.
In the City of London, the total number of collisions has declined between 2008 and 2011, from nearly 8,400 to less than 7,500. However, the number of injury collisions increased from approximately 1,400 to over 1,500 in the same period. Following a worldwide trend of agencies focusing efforts on reducing the number and severity of motor vehicle collisions, in 2014 the City of London (the City) developed a Road Safety Strategy to reduce fatal and injury collisions. In 2017, the City adopted the Vision Zero principles, based on which no loss of life is acceptable, making London one of the early Canadian adopters of Vision Zero. One of the key elements of the London Road Safety Strategy (LRSS) during the development of the plan, which occurred between 2012 and 2014, was the coalition building effort, which brought together a multidisciplinary team, including engineering, enforcement, public health, and advocacy groups, among others. This multidisciplinary team expanded the previously active London Middlesex Road Safety Committee into a Steering Committee formed by the City of London, Middlesex County, Ministry of Transportation Ontario, London Police Service, Ontario Provincial Police, Canadian Automobile Association, Young Drivers of Canada, London Block Parent Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Middlesex-London Health Unit.
Manitobans are cycling and walking on provincial highways, and this is not always safe. While active transportation (AT) on highways presents multifaceted safety concerns, it is legal to walk or cycle on all provincial highways in Manitoba. Highway rights-of-way may be the only available public corridors that connect people to where they want to go. Highways are not conventionally designed for AT purposes. Nevertheless, highway operators have a role to play in ensuring the safety of all highway users and enhancing the wellbeing of citizens. It is with this lens that Manitoba Infrastructure developed the AT Policy and Planning Guide to respond to the following questions: How can a highway operator cost-effectively account for AT safety? Under what circumstances should a highway operator consider AT? What are appropriate AT investments for a highway operator? The outcome of the policy and planning guide development process was to outline the role of Manitoba Infrastructure in addressing AT on provincial highways, and to guide Manitoba Infrastructure’s decision-making process when considering AT users and AT needs, in relation to the provincial highway network. The following summarizes the policy: Local governments and/or trail organizations are primarily responsible for the ownership and maintenance of local AT facilities, which includes design, construction, operation, maintenance, funding, liability, and stewardship. MI maintains on-highway AT-related facilities, in order to protect highway safety and operations. Public transportation, including AT, is an appropriate use of provincial highway rights-of-way, if facilities are appropriately located. MI will work with local governments and trail developers to ensure that AT facilities are well planned and designed to protect highway safety and operations. Where there is significant demand for AT on provincial highways, as interregional and/or interprovincial corridors and connections, MI has a responsibility to: reasonably improve safety and usability partner with local governments and/or trail organizations to facilitate development of AT facilities The resulting planning guide presents a three step approach to considering AT, where Manitoba Infrastructure: 1) reviews if there is AT activity at a location, based on an AT trigger map; 2) prioritizes AT activity, given current and latent demands; and 3) determines the appropriate investment. As a further component of the AT Policy and Planning Guide, Manitoba Infrastructure is publishing maps to inform the public about the AT safety implications of various provincial highways.
In 2017, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (ministry) successfully completed the replacement of the Highway 3 Grand River Bridge at Cayuga, Ontario. The existing bridge constructed in 1924 was a five span, 188m long, steel through truss bridge. This complex project included a number of “firsts” for the ministry. This was the first project in Ontario that was delivered using the Construction Manager General Contractor (CMGC) contract delivery model. The project also included a number of innovative solutions, such as slide-in bridge construction of a 188m five span structure, through collaboration with the contractor during the design phase. The CMGC model is still a relatively new contract delivery model for the ministry. The intent of CMGC is to form a collaborative team, between the owner, designer and a contractor, which begins in the design phase and continues throughout construction. During the design phase the contractor provides construction expertise and constructability input into the design with the intent to become the general contractor. This paper provides an overview of the CMGC delivery model, and discusses the rationale for selecting the CMGC contract delivery model for the bridge replacement project in Cayuga. The paper also describes technical solutions developed and implemented by the collaborative CMGC team during both the design and construction phases of the project. Some of the design challenges of the project included the need to construct the replacement bridge while maintaining two-way traffic on the existing bridge; geotechnical challenges related to fractured voided bedrock; the need to maintain existing utility lines across the bridge during the bridge demolition and bridge slide operations; and the need to minimize impacts to the bed and banks of the river. Furthermore, adding to the complexity of the project, during construction, work was stopped for a period of 17 months while the new bridge was sitting on temporary supports and the existing bridge had already been demolished. The CMGC approach again played an important role, enabling the ministry to effectively manage this unforeseen delay through the collaborative relationship developed with the ministry, designer and contractor. Following the successes achieved on this complex project, the ministry has extended the use of the CMGC delivery model to a number of other complex projects.
Dubbed locally as “the Octopus”, the Highway 97A / Main Street intersection forms the entrance to Sicamous, British Columbia, a tourism community with a high percentage of elderly residents, and numerous houseboat rental businesses. The original multi-leg, 45-degree skewed intersection configuration was so confusing and geometrically insufficient that local users avoided the intersection. There were no facilities for cyclists or pedestrians, resulting in significant safety concerns with students from the adjacent school crossing irregularly. The retail businesses immediately adjacent to the intersection suffered as a result. The BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI) had identified a 2-lane roundabout as a preferred option for this location but had previously received adverse comment from the trucking industry (BCTA) regarding roundabouts on numbered routes, primarily due to their perceived inability to accommodate oversized loads. The design of this roundabout therefore needed to carefully balance the safety and operational needs of all users, including oversize permit vehicles, houseboat trailers, and vulnerable users, and required acceptance from the trucking industry and public. Extensive stakeholder and community engagement, as well as innovative design elements, produced a solution with custom aprons for specific vehicle use to better separate users; standardization of materials, colour and textures to identify intended use; a roll-over median approach island to allow counterflow operation of permit vehicles with pilot cars; and reduced cross fall on circular roadway to reduce heavy vehicle racking and roll-over potential. The design is phased for a double-lane facility ultimately. However, a single-lane was constructed initially to gain familiarity and acceptance and improve safety. Active transportation needs are accommodated by multi-use pathways, cycle paths and ramps, and tactile mats are provided for the visually impaired, making it safe for all active modes and in particular the local school children. The design also includes raingardens and native, drought-tolerant plantings, as well as unique public art features. An unintended spin-off of the project is that several adjacent properties have already been rejuvenated due to the significantly improved access. This $7.3M project opened in November 2016 and is safely used by heavy and OS/OW permit vehicles. It has been well received by the local council, Splatsin First Nation, BCTA and MoTI. So much so that this project was awarded the 2017 BC MoTI Deputy Minister’s Award of Excellence for Design.
A research project with the goal of identifying universal accessibility parameters for shared streets was developed by the Transportation Branch of the City of Montreal’s Infrastructure, Roads and Transportation Services Department. This project was initiated in the fall of 2016 and completed in the spring of 2017. The adoption of the Pedestrian Charter in 2006 was a decisive moment for the City of Montreal, as the Charter recognized the pedestrians’ primacy in the urban environment. By designating the pedestrian as the core priority, the City of Montreal wanted to position walking as a primary means of movement, in addition to offering Montrealers a safe and convenient pedestrian environment that would lead to the re-appropriation of the public realm by local residents. The Montreal Transportation Plan, approved in 2008, supports this vision and specifies the need to share the road between all user categories. Measures 14 and 15 of the Transportation Plan respectively focus on redefining the place of motorized transportation and on consolidating the pedestrian environment at the neighbourhood level. In keeping with the Plan’s policy direction, the City of Montreal is developing highly innovative pedestrian infrastructures, including several pilot projects relating to the shared streets concept. The ultimate goal is to develop sustainable mobility at the neighbourhood level by improving pedestrian safety and comfort, encouraging all Montrealers to walk to nearby destinations as a first choice.
An economic and cultural hub in Saskatchewan, Saskatoon has become one of the most attractive places in Canada to live. In the next 25 to 40 years, Saskatoon’s population is expected to double, from 250,000 to 500,000. Based on comprehensive visioning (Saskatoon Speaks), analysis, and planning (Strategic Plan 2013-2023 and Growth Plan to Half a Million), the City recognizes that accommodating growth using a business-as-usual approach would be problematic if not unsustainable. In order to enhance the quality of life and increase economic activity in Saskatoon, the Growth Plan identifies three interrelated strategies: corridor growth, transit and core bridges. Under the transit strategy, bus rapid transit (BRT) forms the backbone of a multi-modal transportation system supporting the movement of people along major corridors, to key destinations and development nodes. Work related to the planning and design of the BRT is underway. The BRT concept, configuration, and preliminary design offers solutions that meets the needs of the Saskatoon transit market, Growth Plan objectives, scale of the community, and available funding. The implementation of the BRT will improve transit frequency, reliability, and customer experience, serving existing customers better and attracting new riders. BRT is also a catalyst for city building. BRT is the mobility backbone of several land use intensification initiatives including: Corridor Plans for 22nd Street, College Drive, 8th Street, Preston Avenue and three mixed use Transit Villages at established commercial nodes adjacent to the future BRT lines.
SNC Lavalin O&M is the company responsible for the operations, maintenance and rehabilitation of 275 kilometres of Trans-Canada Highway in New Brunswick; from the Quebec border to Longs Creek (west of Fredericton), and Route 95 between the United States border and Woodstock, until 2033. During its winter operations, SNC Lavalin O&M utilizes echelon plowing, the practice of staggering snowplows across all lanes of a multi-lane highway. By passing the ridge of snow from the lead snow plow to the following plow, echelon plowing makes it possible to clear accumulation from all lanes at once. It is, however, extremely dangerous for motorists to pass between or around the snowplows while in this formation, due to the possibility of whiteout conditions between the plow trucks. There is also the danger of impact with the back of the right side wing plow as it becomes obscured by snow. The number of collisions between motorists and the snow plow right wings was an issue even after many public awareness campaigns on the risks involved when passing between the plow trucks. After the last collision with injury to the plow operator in March 2013, and in the continuing effort to keep motorists as well as employees safe, SNC Lavalin O&M developed a “Safety Swing Arm”. The Safety Swing Arm consists of a 2.7 meter mechanical arm with high intensity flashing lights, installed on the back of the lead plow truck. When the right side wing plow is deployed, the arm simultaneously extends to create a further visual and break-a-way physical barrier between the motorists and the right wing plow. The Safety Swing Arm has been proven to prevent motorists from hitting the right wing while passing the plow during poor visibility conditions.