Congestion Pricing - A Primer: Evolution of Second Generation Pricing Projects

Thursday, January 28, 2016 - 16:15

While pricing of managed lanes has been in place for over 20 years, most of the projects have been conversions of existing high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes into high-occupancy-toll (HOT) lanes. These are the first generation projects.

This primer explores the evolution of first-generation pricing strategies into more complex express toll lanes using new or expanded capacity. For purposes of this primer, the second-generation pricing projects refer to variably priced lanes and variable tolls on entire roadways. Pricing changes throughout the day, either on a variable daily schedule or dynamically based on the level of congestion and demand for the managed lanes.

The second generation movement also includes the implementation of integrated networks of priced roadways within urban regions. The primer explains these differences and provides insights from case studies around the United States. The primer concludes with guidance for agencies looking to develop second-generation pricing projects.  The full report is available online at


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