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Expansion of a GPS Truck Trip Sample to Remove Bias and Obtain Representative Flows for Ontario

Tue, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Expansion of a GPS Truck Trip Sample to Remove Bias and Obtain Representative Flows for Ontario
by Gingerich,K; Maoh,H; Anderson,W.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P64 - INTERNET


This paper identified two types of bias, industry and distance, found in a sample of GPS derived truck trips. A method was established to remove the industry bias using trip rates and expanding by the population of firms in a given zone. In addition, distance bias was accounted for by utilizing the IPF method to match total estimated zonal production and attraction (from the first expansion) while maintaining the origin-destination patterns obtained from the 2006 CVS survey created by MTO. A second expansion was then applied by optimizing the expanded GPS totals with the truck totals from survey station points located along major Ontario routes. The total trip productions and attractions generated from the analysis provided a better representation of truck trips in Ontario compared to the original sample while closely matching the aggregate totals observed on the road network. However, the microscopic behaviour of individual trips is lost at an aggregate level. To retain the travel behaviour of vehicles, we plan to utilize the original sample to synthesize a full population of trips by using methods such as combinatorial optimization (Ryan et al., 2009). In such a case, the synthesis algorithm can be used to ensure that the aggregate zonal totals by industry type are maintained. Such a method has been applied before for expanded trip rates. For example, Goulias et al. (2014) used population synthesis to expand a household survey in California. After the trips are synthesized, our data can then be used in microscopic transportation models (such as truck tours) without the biases inherent in the original GPS sample.

Advanced Technology Adoption and Use in Canada's Transportation Sector

Tue, 09/26/2017 - 21:37
Advanced Technology Adoption and Use in Canada's Transportation Sector
by Bacon,SP; Dubé,V; McKeown,L.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P63 - INTERNET


This paper examines the adoption rates of advanced technologies by the Canadian transportation sector and its industries against the average rate across all surveyed industries. After presenting the adoption rates of the most widely adopted technologies, the paper compares transportation with 7 other sectors of the Canadian economy. Next, attention shifts to the objectives that transportation enterprises set by adopting advanced technology, as well as the obstacles that were faced, and what measures they took to overcome them. The paper concludes by pointing to future advanced technologies, such as electric vehicles, autonomous transportation, Smart Cities, and others, which are poised to impact the transportation sector. And this impact will create new challenges and opportunities for transportation enterprises.

Canadian Coastal Shipping and CETA: Some Lessons from Four Market Deregulation Cases

Mon, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Canadian Coastal Shipping and CETA: Some Lessons from Four Market Deregulation Cases
by Laribi,S; Guy,E.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P62 - INTERNET


After several years of negotiation, Canada and the European Union have come to a final agreement on the Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) and the text is currently going through ratification process. The paper seeks to highlight some possible CETA’s consequences for domestic Canadian shipping markets. It uses industrial economics analytical tools drawn from a Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP) paradigm. From a literature review, it reconstructs four cases of past coastal shipping deregulation that occurred internationally: Philippine, Greece, Taiwan and New Zealand. The observed transformations are then characterized in terms of the SCP lens. The approach does not claim to forecast market transformations in Canada’s coastal trade but to underline some common trends reported in different coastal shipping markets after a deregulation process.

Microsimulating the Spatial Distribution of Commercial Vehicles by the Location of Their Owned Establishments

Mon, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Microsimulating the Spatial Distribution of Commercial Vehicles by the Location of Their Owned Establishments
by Hagag,A; Maoh,H.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P61 - INTERNET


Freight movement is a major process contributing to economic growth and prosperity. It is a fairly dynamic process due to the rapid changes arising from complex supply chain structures, logistics and technological advancements. The rapid changes and growth in commercial vehicle movements in recent years have led to a surge of studies that focus on understanding the processes giving rise to these movements. To date, little has been done to study and model vehicle ownership of business establishments. However, the number of owned commercial vehicles is a significant factor that explains the number of generated commercial trips (Madar, 2014). The lack of studies on the topic is believed to be due to the absence of detailed commercial vehicle data. This paper addresses the problem of data scarcity by employing synthetic population techniques to microsimulate the number of commercial vehicles owned by all individual business establishments that engage in delivering goods or services in the Windsor Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). The case presented here uses the combinatorial optimization technique (CO) to synthesize the number of commercial vehicles owned by business establishments that engage in commercial travel activities (i.e. delivering goods or services).

Modelling Freight Outsourcing Decisions

Mon, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Modelling Freight Outsourcing Decisions
by Mostafa,TS; Roorda,MJ.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P60 - INTERNET


Freight outsourcing decisions influence freight system dynamics. In this paper we tried to answer some basic questions related to outsourcing such as: what influences outsourcing, how the economy affects outsourcing, what influences the decision of international outsourcing, and whether innovation and technological advancements are significant to outsourcing. We present models of outsourcing of goods production and logistics. The models consider the effect of firm characteristics and strategic focus, industry related variables, economic conditions, location characteristics, and advances in innovation and technology on outsourcing. Generally, when a firm is focused on the core competency of their production, they are more likely to outsource their freight related activities. This can be explained by the positive sign of the effect of employment size, economic indicator, and the use of advanced technologies in the production process on outsourcing decisions. The models are to be used in a microsimulation platform for the purpose of agent-based firm micro-modelling.

Keeping Trucking In-House: A Dynamic Muti-Item Shipment Consolidation Model for a Manufacturer-Distributor

Mon, 09/25/2017 - 22:32
Keeping Trucking In-House: A Dynamic Muti-Item Shipment Consolidation Model for a Manufacturer-Distributor
by Ülkü,MA.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P59 - INTERNET


From the perspective of a manufacturer-distributor (MD) such as Procter & Gamble, who manufactures a variety of products (item types) and who employs its own fleet of trucks to convey freight to its Distribution Centre (DC) from where individual orders are paddled to the retailers (R1, R2 etc.), what is the best consolidation and dispatch policy, and under which conditions? We aim to shed light on these practical questions from a dynamic modeling approach. In this research, we introduce Dynamic Multi-Item Shipment Consolidation (DMISCL). Being a better representation of logistics industry practices, DMISCL arises when the orders (package, or less-than truckload (LTL) shipments) come for varying types of product, and it requires the decisions of continuing to consolidate a load (hold), versus shipping it now (dispatch) to be made at the arrival time of each order. DMISCL is a better representation of industrial practices.

Solar-Powered Vactrain - A Preliminary Analysis

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Solar-Powered Vactrain - A Preliminary Analysis
by Narayan,S.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P58 - INTERNET


This paper analyzes a high-speed electric train running inside an evacuated tunnel that is powered by solar panels mounted above the tunnel that continuously produce 137 kW of average power per km of track. This train will be totally weather-proof and consume much less power than today’s high speed trains, so that surplus solar electricity from the solar panels can be profitably sold to the grid. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that this 500 km/h solar-powered vactrain can be profitable at a ticket price of 0.29 to 0.40 U.S dollars per km per passenger so that it will be cheaper than air travel.

Rail Level of Service Decisions and Shipper Service Requirements

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Rail Level of Service Decisions and Shipper Service Requirements
by Gallagher,R; Tougas,FEJ.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P57 - INTERNET


Sections 113 – 116 (the “LOS Provisions”) of the Canada Transportation Act (the “Act”) set out a federal railway company’s level of service (“LOS”) obligations. These are commonly referred to as the common carrier obligations. They require rail carriers to provide “adequate and suitable accommodation” for shippers’ traffic. The LOS Provisions were not sufficient to prevent shippers from experiencing regular rail carrier service failures in the period leading up to 2007, following which the Government of Canada appointed the federal Rail Freight Service Review panel. The panel’s report recommended, and in 2013 the Government ultimately adopted, amendments to the Act that granted shippers a right to a service level agreement (“SLA”), failing which the shipper might refer the matter to arbitration to establish the terms of a SLA. During the winter of 2013-14, rail service deteriorated substantially. Many shippers remain dissatisfied with rail service levels and many express frustration at their inability to do anything about it.

Improved Financial Performance of CP and CN Over the Past Twenty Years: Factors Contributing to the Improvement

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Improved Financial Performance of CP and CN Over the Past Twenty Years: Factors Contributing to the Improvement
by Cairns,M.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P56 - INTERNET


Over the course of the past two decades since the privatization of CN in 1995, and the further economic deregulation in 1996, each of CP and CN has seen their operating ratios improve by some 30%. This paper will examine how these impressive improvements were achieved – the changes to the networks, operations, freight rates, commodity mix, and labour, and their contributions to the improvement.

Full Steam Ahead: Performance Measures of Canada's Rail Industry

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Full Steam Ahead: Performance Measures of Canada's Rail Industry
by McKeown,L; Madar,G; Searag,S.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P55 - INTERNET


Transportation has played an important role in the political and economic development of Canada. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Pacific Ocean is perhaps the best known example of this nation building role. Today, the railway industry continues to play an essential economic role by shipping many types of goods across the country. It was the legislative reforms of 1987 however, that defined a more market-driven approach for the industry, helping to transform Canada’s mainline railways from domestic incumbents into leading continental competitors. This paper traces this transformation of Canada’s railway industry by examining selected operating and financial performance measures over a twenty five year period following the 1987 legislative changes. It begins by providing a context, identifying the rationale for regulatory reforms that emerged in the early 1980s in anticipation of enhanced trade and from pressures south of the border. In the second section, the paper examines the Canadian railway industry’s performance from 1988 to 2013 and the contribution of the short line or regional rail industry.

Do We Need to Assess Service Delivery at Canadian Ports?

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Do We Need to Assess Service Delivery at Canadian Ports?
by Brooks,MR.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P54 - INTERNET


Recent research on port service delivery for the American Association of Port Authorities aimed at developing a standard instrument (SEAPORT–Seaport Effectiveness Assessment for PORT managers) that can accurately and reliably measure how well ports deliver services to their users. The study population was customers and users of container ports in the U.S. and Canada—cargo owners, freight forwarders, shipping lines and supply chain partners at the port. Designed as a standalone measurement tool, results from the SEAPORT instrument can be used to assess the effectiveness of service delivery. When placed in context with fluidity measurements by Transport Canada and the berth productivity measurement by the Journal of Commerce (JoC), this instrument would provide a holistic view of Canadian port performance for container movements. This short paper draws heavily on several research papers already published as well as forthcoming research for the Canada Transportation Act Review (CTAR) Panel, to focus on understanding what service delivery assessment research is needed in order to balance the many ways of spending funds in the port sector, both by the port and by government.

Opportunities and Challenges of Developing the Northern Shipping Passages

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Opportunities and Challenges of Developing the Northern Shipping Passages
by Montemayer,HV; Moorhead,K.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P53 - INTERNET


The aim of this research is to study the implications of the topographical changes in the Arctic and how this affects the northern shipping passages (NSP), this will also include all the historical countries involved by bordering this territory. It is said that, due to climate change and global warming, the Arctic Ocean is undergoing some significant topographical changes. There increasingly less ice, and this is opening up new opportunities for shipping routes. It has been proposed by Kefferpütz (2010) that, before the end of the twenty first century, the temperatures in the Arctic are expected to increase from four to seven degrees Celsius (p. 1). The earlier models predicted that the Arctic could be ice free by the summer of 2030. Evidence showed that in 2008 there was a 65 percent decrease in Arctic ice. The greatest decrease in the summer Arctic ice caps on record was from 2007 to 2009. Although, there is not a 100 percent accurate date as to when the Arctic will be free of ice, Canada and other Northern countries should begin to strategize how to utilize the new Arctic passages that will becoming available. This could involve setting up new shipping routes, navigational aids, ports, and developing new equipment to deal with icy conditions. Not only does the Arctic offer new shipping routes, but also, 13 percent of the world’s oil reserves and 30 percent of the world natural gas resources are said to be in the Arctic. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to compile information on the relevance of the fast approaching prospect the Artic has to offer. Decisions need to be made on ownership of territory and the paper shows recent territorial disputes and developments. The prospects of sovereignty is outlined, which involves what individual countries are doing to maintain sovereignty or develop ownership over the NSP. Also, what sort of interests does the marine shipping companies have in reducing their travel distance, through the use of the NSP, this includes the cost and lead time delivery savings that the NSP can offer. Finally, the technology and equipment development considers what investments are required to make the regular use of NSP possible (Kefferpütz, 2010).

Japan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Intermodal Container Operations: Applicability to US Operations

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Japan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Intermodal Container Operations: Applicability to US Operations
by Stewart,RD; Tada,H.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P52 - INTERNET


Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has proven advantages as a transportation fuel. However in the United States the use of this abundant product as a transportation fuel is limited by the number of liquefaction plants and the undeveloped supply chains that can distribute the product. One potential option for the distribution of LNG is by shipping it in containers either by truck, rail or aboard a vessel. Japan has operated a containerized LNG rail truck intermodal distribution systems since 2000. The results of field research in 2015 on the rail truck containerized intermodal system are given. An analysis is made of the operational characteristics, equipment and safety protocols used in Japan. An evaluation of the applicability of the Japanese LNG container model to the United States rail/truck intermodal container network is presented.

Measuring Commodity Flows in Canada: A Carrier-Based Approach

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Measuring Commodity Flows in Canada: A Carrier-Based Approach
by Madar,G; Searag,S; McKeown,L.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P51 - INTERNET


Transportation plays an instrumental role across the economy as a cost that must be incurred to complete almost any market transaction. As Winston (2013) asserts, transportation is so intertwined with almost every part of the economy that it is vital for government to continually assess system performance and to consider improvements. As a trade-reliant nation with its population spread over a vast landscape, Canada is particularly dependent on a transportation system that is efficient, reliable, innovative, responsive to change, and resilient to disruptions. However, it is evident that high quality statistical information is required to assess the national transportation system and its ability to move both people and goods. A Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) is a method for estimating commodity origin and destination flows by mode over a network or system. While conventional, industry-based surveys of transportation provide data to meet national accounting needs, a FAF requires activity-based surveys to estimate commodity flows. This study begins by reviewing a possible Canadian FAF as well as the associated data considerations, such as geography and commodity detail. Then, it assesses the coverage of existing surface transportation surveys to estimate freight flows. By adding an assessment of rail coverage, this represents an extension of a previous work that assessed trucking coverage (Madar & McKeown, 2015).

Recent Public Policy INitiatives in Respect of Railway Services

Fri, 09/22/2017 - 21:39
Recent Public Policy INitiatives in Respect of Railway Services
by Patenaude,J.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P50 - INTERNET


Bill C-52, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act, gives a shipper the right to request a service level agreement (SLA) from its federal railway service provider and establishes an arbitration process in the event the shipper and the railway company cannot agree on the terms of an SLA. Bill C-52 came into force in June 2012. Bill C-30, the Fair Rail for Grain Farmers Act, allows the government to establish weekly minimum volumes of grain to be moved by CN and CP and provides penalties for railway companies in the event of their failure to move the minimum volumes. It also provides the Canadian Transportation Agency (the Agency) with the authority to extend the interswitching distances and to specify what matters can be subject to SLA arbitrations. Bill C-30 came into force in May 2013. This paper reviews and discusses the factual context in which both Bills were enacted and their consistency with the principles of the NTP enunciated in the Canada Transportation Act.

Sustainable Transportation: Airships Versus Jet Airplanes

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 21:36
Sustainable Transportation: Airships Versus Jet Airplanes
by Prentice,BE; Knotts,R.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P49 - INTERNET


The cloud that now surrounds the silver lining of jet airplanes is the smoke from their contrails. As the 21st century progresses, burning fossil fuels with abandon is coming to an end. This paper offers a definition of a sustainable transport system while outlining the need, presents information on jet airplane Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation. This is followed by highlighting transport airships that could replace the most polluting older passenger jetliners that have been converted to cargo carriage. The paper concludes with some thoughts on the impact of transport airships in international trade.

Come Fly With Me: Seasonal and Temporal Patterns in Air Travel

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 21:36
Come Fly With Me: Seasonal and Temporal Patterns in Air Travel
by Bova,T; Cromwell,G; McKeown,L.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P48 - INTERNET


Certain months of the year, days of week and hours of day combine to create sharp peaks at Canada’s top airports. In 2014, the most crowded single day to fly was on Friday, August 15th when more than 183,600 passengers departed Canada’s top eight airports, a 30% spike from the annual daily average. During the 2014 Christmas season, Friday December 19th was the busiest day with 171,400 passengers departing from the top airports. On an average Friday, about 1 of 5 passengers (19.3%) departed between 4:00 and 7:00 p.m. Conversely, the least crowed time to depart from these top airports was between 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m., on a Tuesday, Wednesday or Saturday, during November into early December and then again during late January and into February. Since the 1987 reforms of the passenger airline industry, carriers are competing on fares, striving to operate efficiently by achieving higher load factors. At the same time, they must also try to shift passenger and aircraft traffic from peak into off-peak periods. Dynamic pricing represents a strategy to encourage this shift by essentially considering the price elasticity of demand in setting fares. This can be frustrating at an individual level, since passengers can end up paying different prices for essentially the same service. From a social welfare perspective however, it represents an efficient market solution. And a principle underlying the 1987 regulatory reforms is that market forces are the best means for providing Canadians with efficient transportation at the lowest cost.

Passenger-centric Intermodal Traffic Management involving Airports and Railways

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 21:36
Passenger-centric Intermodal Traffic Management involving Airports and Railways
by Milbredt,O; Rudolph,F; Grunewald,E.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P47 - INTERNET


The FAA envisioned seamless air traffic in its Destination2025 report. Developing such an air transportation system will require the conjunction of different transport modes. Whereas physical connections for intermodal transport are already in the focus of stakeholders at an airport, a conjunction on a management level is also desirable. Efficiency and predictability of operations could be increased, if the position of passengers within the operational chain at an airport was known in addition to the location of every aircraft. We present a Passenger Information System in the form of an app for smartphones. It provides passengers with real-time information such as estimated remaining time to reach the gate throughout the journey and allows stakeholders, such as airlines and airports, to make decisions based on passenger locations. We employ our virtual intermodal traffic management system to test the application with a realistic flight plan, airport terminal layout, and train schedule. Usability and acceptance of the smartphone app is tested in a survey covering functionality and user-friendliness.

Commuter Mobility and Economic Performance in US Cities

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 21:36
Commuter Mobility and Economic Performance in US Cities
by Tyndall,J.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P46 - INTERNET


Rival schools of thought disagree on the impact increased mobility has on metropolitan economic performance. New Urbanist contributions to the discussion typically downplay the supposed benefits, emphasising the drawbacks of autodependency that often accompany increases in mobility. The current study adds to this debate by demonstrating that increased mobility inflates metropolitan median income, while imposing negative consequences for several measures of metropolitan workforce performance, and no clear impact in terms of economic growth. Findings suggest that the benefit to society of marginal mobility investment may well be negative. Prior to this paper, a metropolitan level estimate of mobility’s causal effect on economic and labor market outcomes had not been attempted. Future research should explore the apparent workforce outcomes more deeply and at the neighborhood or individual level in order to identify which subpopulations are impacted most strongly by increases in urban mobility. In spite of the potential for further research there is now strong evidence in the literature demonstrating that capital investment in the pursuit of urban mobility is above the efficient level. The imagined economic benefits of mobility investment have no clear empirical basis.

Clogged Arteries: An Empirical Approach for Identifying and Addressing Localized Highway Congestion Bottlenecks

Thu, 09/21/2017 - 21:36
Clogged Arteries: An Empirical Approach for Identifying and Addressing Localized Highway Congestion Bottlenecks
by Sakhrani,V; Chowdhury,T.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P45 - INTERNET


In this study, we develop a screening and prioritization framework for empirically identifying localized highway congestion bottlenecks using observed speeds from vehicle GPS probe data. We apply the framework to a large vehicle speed dataset comprising over 350,000 highway segments across the United States. The five-step procedure includes (i) time-based data sampling and the development of an idealized speed profile for highway segments, (ii) network conflation, (iii) pinpointing congestion bottlenecks, (iv) adjacency analysis for capturing the full length of the congested zone and associated costs, and (v) estimating the potential benefits of alleviating bottlenecks. Spatial visualization techniques succinctly depict the results. We estimate both the multi-dimensional costs of these bottlenecks, as well as the potential benefits of alleviating them.

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