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Calibration of Alberta Fatigue Truck

Sun, 12/10/2017 - 20:44
Calibration of Alberta Fatigue Truck
by Grondin,G; Desalegne,A; Ramsay,B; Spratlin,M.
2017.
TAC 2017: Investing in Transportation: Building Canada's Economy - - 2017 Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada.
CA6 ARH_10 2017A5111 - INTERNET


The Province of Alberta uses one of the heaviest design trucks in Canada for the design of its highway bridges. Despite the use of a CL-800 design truck, most of the fatigue damage is caused by the more frequent trucks rather than the heaviest trucks used for design at the ultimate limit states level. The Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code, CSA-S6-14, uses a fatigue design truck with a GVW of 52% of the design truck and a further reduction of 27% is applied when the volume of heavy trucks not more than the greater of 200 trucks per day or 5% of the ADTT. In order to verify whether these fatigue truck factors are still valid for traffic on Alberta highways, a re-calibration of the fatigue truck was conducted using an extensive database of weigh-in-motion data collected from six sites from September 2004 to July 2013. The data collection sites include Highway 2 at Leduc and at Red Deer, Highway 2A at Leduc, Highway 3 at Fort MacLeod, Highway 16 at Edson, and Highway 44 at Villeneuve. The data processing consisted of filtering the data to eliminate data that were found to be unreliable either because of excessive vehicle speed, unrealistic axle spacing or weights, and light trucks that would not have any impact on the fatigue damage of bridges. Filtering of the raw data resulted in the elimination of about 90% of the collected data at each site. However, approximately 30 million trucks were retained for the calibration of a fatigue truck for Alberta highways. The calibration of a CL-800 truck was conducted for the double slope fatigue curves defined in CSA-S6- 14 using four different influence lines, namely, the midspan moment of a simply supported span and the moments at midspan of the end span, at the midspan of an interior span and at an interior support of a four span continuous beam. Span lengths from 2 m to 70 m were investigated. The calibration for all six WIM sites indicated that the calibration factor varies with span length, but is essentially constant for span lengths longer than 12 m and decreases significantly for shorter span lengths. Although the results for most WIM sites were similar, the Edson site showed slightly heavier trucks than at the other sites. The trucks at Highway 2A at Leduc (having the lowest traffic volume of all sites) were found to be significantly lighter than at the other sites, resulting in smaller calibration factors for all span lengths. The calibration of the fatigue truck was conducted for the number of equivalent stress cycles specified in CSA-S6-14. The calibration process supported a fatigue truck factor of 0.52 for bridges with span lengths greater than or equal to 12 m. A linearly variable fatigue truck factor is proposed for spans shorter than 12 m. It was found that the factor CL as presented in CSA-S6-14 is adequate for low traffic roads, although this could be verified at only one location in Alberta.

Calgary Airport Trail Tunnel Monitoring Program

Sun, 12/10/2017 - 19:54
Calgary Airport Trail Tunnel Monitoring Program
by Azarnejad,A; Murdoch,N; Sharma,V; Kroman,J.
2017.
TAC 2017: Investing in Transportation: Building Canada's Economy - - 2017 Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada.
CA6 ARH_10 2017A5110 - INTERNET


The Calgary Airport Trail Tunnel is a cut-and-cover, two-cell roadway tunnel constructed under the Calgary International Airport’s runway and three associated taxiways. It is owned by The City of Calgary (The City) and is on land leased from the Calgary Airport Authority (YYC). The structure is a cast-in-place, conventionally reinforced concrete rigid frame on spread footings with two spans of 17 m each and a total length of 620 m. The Tunnel was designed according to the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC). One of the load cases considered in the design was loading due to temperature effects (including temperature variations and thermal gradient). Based on the CHBDC, the design temperature range for Calgary is from -34 to 38°C. It was discussed during the design stage that the Tunnel, which is a buried structure, may not actually be subjected to this temperature range. The design team could not find any references that addressed temperature ranges inside tunnels. Another issue raised during the design stage was the necessity for movement joints. Although some references recommend joints as close as 9 m apart, there are tunnels that have been constructed without any joints. To investigate these questions for future designs, it was discussed with The City and it was agreed to put temperature and movement monitors in the tunnel. Wireless sensors were cast into the concrete walls and roof slab at 40 locations to measure temperatures at two surfaces and the mid-depth of each section. Also, surface mounted sensors were installed at two movement joints to monitor the tunnel’s movements. After providing a summary of the Tunnel and monitoring design, the paper emphasizes the findings from the monitoring program, including: · Average maximum and minimum temperatures and thermal gradients recorded inside the Tunnel · Comparisons with temperatures recorded outside the Tunnel at the Calgary Airport · Comparisons to the design temperature range and gradient provided by CHBDC · Results obtained from movement sensors.

Automated Inventory of Overhead Assets on Highways using Mobile LiDAR Data

Sun, 12/10/2017 - 19:19
Automated Inventory of Overhead Assets on Highways using Mobile LiDAR Data
by Gargoum,SA; El-Basyouny,K; Gadowski,A; Froese,K.
2017.
TAC 2017: Investing in Transportation: Building Canada's Economy - - 2017 Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada.
CA6 ARH_10 2017A5109 - INTERNET


Assessment of vertical clearance on highways is an integral step to ensuring that design standards are met throughout the service life of the highway. The assessment enables timely intervention, in case clearance requirements are not met, thereby extending the service life of structures and avoiding prohibitive maintenance costs due to damage which could occur to those overhead objects in case of collisions. That being said, before clearance can be assessed at overhead objects, these objects must first be detected, inventoried and classified. Unfortunately, manual procedures to collect such information on highways are unsafe, time consuming, labour intensive and, in some cases, impractical. This is particularly true when information is required on a network-level. This paper proposes a novel technique by which overhead objects could be automatically detected, classified and inventoried using mobile LiDAR data. Moreover, the proposed algorithm also provides an estimate of the clearance at those objects. The technique involves defining the road trajectory of the highway and then using search algorithms to detect overhead structures. Further, the algorithm employs clustering tools to classify the detected structures into different objects (eg: bridges vs power lines). The algorithm also yields an estimate of the clearance all detected overhead objects. The algorithm is tested on two different highway segments at the province of Alberta and was successful in detecting all overhead structures on those highways, and in providing a decent estimate of the clearance at all those structures.

Integrated Transport - Economics Model for Ontario

Sun, 12/10/2017 - 18:52
Integrated Transport - Economics Model for Ontario
by Damodaran,S.
2017.
TAC 2017: Investing in Transportation: Building Canada's Economy - - 2017 Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada.
CA6 ARH_10 2017A5108 - INTERNET


Travel demand forecasting models are an essential tool for planning and policy analyses and evaluations. In Ontario, several planning agencies have developed urban transportation models, either using the traditional four-stage trip-based modelling approach or the more advanced types (for example, activity-based models). The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) has several forecasting tools to aid in planning and policy analyses, including the one for the megaregion of Greater Golden Horseshoe (GGH). Outside of this area, there was no single forecasting tool for passenger and freight that is consistent and integrated. To fill this gap, MTO undertook a best practice review of practice on multimodal, integrated modelling framework at the provincial scale and embarked on a project to develop such a tool.

Pavement Performance Model Development for the Concession of the South Fraser Perimeter Road

Thu, 12/07/2017 - 21:36
Pavement Performance Model Development for the Concession of the South Fraser Perimeter Road
by Palsat,B; Reggin,A; Riessner,M; Galsworthy,I.
2016.
Proceedings of the Sixth-First Annual Conference of the Canadian Technical Asphalt Association (CTAA): Banff, Alberta.
CA6 AIH___ 2016P16 - MAIN


The increasing popularity of the Public Private Partnership (P3) procurement model for roadway corridor projects has resulted in a fundamental shift toward a performance-based design approach. Typically, an asset must be operated for a fixed period and is required to meet a prescribed set of Asset Preservation Performance Measures (APPMs) in each year of the Concession. Optimizing Operation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation (OM&R) activities to meet the APPM requirements to meet the APPM at the lowest possible costs relies heavily on the development of a set of reliable and accurate pavement condition prediction models. This paper presents an overview of the development of a distribution-based International Roughness Index (IRI) performance prediction model for the concession of the SFPR, located in the Greater Vancouver Area of British Columbia. The APPMs of the South Fraser Perimeter Road (SFPR) were more complex than typical highway agency performance thresholds as they incorporate a distribution-based roadway condition model. To account for this added complexity, a statistical-distribution model was subsequently developed that predicts the distribution of pavement distresses in any Concession Year. This paper presents the methodology developed as part of this statistical-distribution model development.

A Paving Solution to Minimize Airport Down Time While Providing Resistance to Surface Deformation: Calgary Airport

Thu, 12/07/2017 - 20:23
A Paving Solution to Minimize Airport Down Time While Providing Resistance to Surface Deformation: Calgary Airport
by Croteau,J-M; Pianarosa,S; Harrison,T; Johnston,AG; Leroy-Mallol,F.
2016.
Proceedings of the Sixth-First Annual Conference of the Canadian Technical Asphalt Association (CTAA): Banff, Alberta.
CA6 AIH___ 2016P15 - MAIN


In the spring of 2015, the Calgary Airport Authority was looking for a paving solution to resolve a recurring surface deformation issue in the holding area of two taxiways leading to Runway 17/35. The paving solution needed to satisfy two requirements: rapidity of execution to minimize airport down time, and resistance to rutting and shoving to alleviate surface deformation. Standard General Inc - Calgary (SGIC), a subsidiary of Colas Canada Inc, proposed the usage of a paving material marketed as Betoflex(tm), bsed on the long history of successful applications within the Colas Group. The binder was formulated using the Multiple-Stress Creep-Recovery (MSCR) test to achieve a PG 58E-28 binder. The paving material was engineered as a 0-16 mm material to facilitate placement in one 100 mm thick layer and to reduce placement time. The mixture was developed using the French Level 2 methodology to ensure mixture workability and rutting resistance. This paper provides an overall perspective of the engineering of asphalt mixtures to achieve an "in service" performance. It alos discusses the differences between the French and North American approaches in mix design methodologies and why in the context of the two taxiways at the Calgary Airport, the French approach was used.

Evaluation of Cracking Performance for Polymer-Modified Asphalt Mixtures with High RAP Content

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 21:32
Evaluation of Cracking Performance for Polymer-Modified Asphalt Mixtures with High RAP Content
by Yan,Y; Roque,R; Cocconcelli,C; Bekoe,M; Lopp,G.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P22 - MAIN


Fourteen reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) mixtures designed with different combinations of RAP sources, contents (up to 40%) and mixture conditioning levels were evaluated to determine the maximum allowable amount of RAP material in surface courses without jeopardizing pavement cracking performance. Extracted RAP binder was blended with virgin polymer-modified asphalt (PMA) binder at various RAP binder replacement ratios. All blends behaved effectively as PMA binder as they met the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) % recovery requirement, and in addition they had satisfactory binder fracture energy density (FED) values. RAP gradation was found to significantly affect the fracture properties of RAP mixtures as it controls the distribution of RAP binder and potentially the degree of blending between virgin and RAP binder. Increased RAP content resulted in stronger (i.e., higher tensile strength) but more brittle (i.e., lower failure strain and lower mixture fracture energy) mixtures. However, after long-term oven aging (LTOA) plus cyclic pore pressure conditioning (CPPC) which was used to simulate long-term field aging conditioning, all RAP mixtures still exhibited dissipated creep strain energy to failure (DCSEf) values above 0.75 kJ/m3 and energy ratio (ER) values well above 1.0, indicating acceptable cracking performance. It must be emphasized that all RAP mixtures had good gradation characteristics as they all met Superpave design criteria and dominant aggregate size range and the interstitial component (DASR-IC) requirements. Therefore, satisfactory inclusion of up to 40% RAP was acceptable for well-designed PMA mixtures.

Evaluation of the DC(T) Test in Discerning teh Variations in Cracking Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 20:43
Evaluation of the DC(T) Test in Discerning teh Variations in Cracking Properties of Asphalt Mixtures
by Blankenship,PB; Zeinali,A.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P21 - MAIN


As the temperature of an asphalt pavement drops to below freezing point, the asphalt material starts to lose its ductility, and consequently, the asphalt mixture becomes more susceptible to cracking. The disk-shaped compact tension [DC(T)] fracture test has been used to quantify the fracture properties of asphalt concrete at subzero temperatures for more than a decade. The Asphalt Institute laboratory has successfully utilized the DC(T) test in several research studies. As a result of these studies, a valuable database has been gathered which represents the sensitivity of the DC(T) test, and exhibits how the test is capable of capturing the effects of various factors on the performance of asphalt mixtures at low temperatures. This paper briefly presents the findings from some of these studies. The paper presents the response of the DC(T) test to the variations in several factors relative to asphalt pavements including the crude source of the asphalt binder, aging of the asphalt mixture, deficiency in the in-place density, pavement temperature, using a warm-mix agent, using RAP and RAS materials, and chip sealing as a preservation method. The test proved to be well capable of capturing the variations in these factors; therefore, it can be utilized by pavement managers to assess changes in specimens from asphalt pavements over time to help determine if any maintenance or rehabilitation action is required. Furthermore, the test can be used to evaluate laboratory-made mixtures and ascertain if they would perform satisfactorily in their designated environmental conditions.

effect of Asphalt Binder Modification Type on Low Temperature Performance Determined Using Asphalt Concrete Cracking Device (ACCD)

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 20:31
effect of Asphalt Binder Modification Type on Low Temperature Performance Determined Using Asphalt Concrete Cracking Device (ACCD)
by Kim,SS; Akentuna,M; Nazzal,M; Abbas,A.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P20 - MAIN


For current asphalt paving practice, many unconventional asphalt binders and additives have been introduced. Through physical and chemical interactions with base binders, these modifications usually affect the binder and mix strength and fracture properties as well as stiffness. However, the currently used binder grading system is based on the low temperature stiffness and relaxation behavior as measured using the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). The absence of strength and fracture properties in the asphalt binder grading process may result in inaccurate prediction of field performance. Five PG grade asphalt binders including unmodified, polyphosphoric acid (PPA) modified and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified binders were tested using the BBR and the Asphalt Binder Cracking Device (ABCD). Asphalt mixes prepared with these five binders were also tested with a revised Asphalt Concrete Cracking Device (ACCD) test procedure. The test results showed improved strength and fracture resistance characteristics for SBS modified asphalt binders in the ABCD test and mixtures in the ACCD test, resulting in better performance than that predicted by the BBR low temperature PG grade. However, the PPA modified asphalt binder and the corresponding mixture exhibited worse performance in the ABCD and ACCD tests, respectively, than that predicted by the BBR low temperature PG grade, which may be attributed to the poor fracture resistance.

A Mixture-Based Black Space Parameter for Low Temperature Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 20:02
A Mixture-Based Black Space Parameter for Low Temperature Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt
by Mensching,DJ; Rowe,GM; Daniel,JS.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P19 - MAIN


Low temperature cracking is a critical distress form and is heavily influenced by the relaxation and strength capabilities of the material. These properties are related to the stiffness through principles of viscoelasticity. Recently, there is elevated pressure on decisions made by pavement and materials engineers to produce the longest lasting, most resourceful pavement systems possible to optimize monetary and non-renewable resource usage. The primary objectives of this study are to: 1) assess the value of a parameter which can describe low temperature cracking resistance by using dynamic modulus ( E* ) and phase angle (delta) of the mixture and laboratory-measured performance; 2) present shape parameters of a mixture master curve that are directly related to the relaxation spectra, which is expected to play a pivotal role in low temperature distress resistance with aging; 3) define failure lines in Black Space which correspond with laboratory-measured performance and operate under a well-understood basis reinforced by the literature; and 4) provide agencies with a tool to aid in the movement towards a performance-based mixture design, acceptance, or rehabilitation decision-making system. An analysis of the mixture master curve is done to establish parameters which describe the relaxation spectra and aging potential of materials. A mixture-based Black Space parameter is presented based on results from the E* master curve construction and the thermal stress restrained specimen test. This approach holds promise, but must be calibrated with a robust database before serious implementation considerations are made. Future work will look to determine a common stiffness condition to better define the failure threshold and to identify possible alternatives to the modified Glover- Rowe function used in this study. Further evaluation is also needed to optimize the temperature-frequency combination of the Black Space parameter itself and ensure a condition is specified that can be captured by test equipment an owner agency or contractor may possess as part of a performance-based specification framework.

Relaxation Spectra of Asphalt Binders and the Christensen-Anderson Rheological Model

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 19:31
Relaxation Spectra of Asphalt Binders and the Christensen-Anderson Rheological Model
by Christensen,DW; Anderson,DA; Rowe,GM.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P18 - MAIN


The development of the well-known Christensen-Anderson (CA) rheological model grew out of attempts to model the relaxation spectra of asphalt binders using a skewed logistic distribution function. For this reason, there are very strong relationships between the CA model parameters and the characteristics of relaxation spectra for asphalt binders. This paper presents a recently developed equation that allows direct and accurate calculation of the relaxation spectra from CA model parameters, demonstrating the nature of this relationship. Of the CA model/spectrum parameters, the most important in terms of describing overall behavior and potential performance is the R-value, which describes the shape and skewness of the spectrum. This parameter and other similar rheological parameters have been linked to various important aspects of asphalt binder behavior, including fatigue resistance, chemical composition and degree of oxidative aging. This makes the parameter R a potentially useful parameter for inclusion in asphalt binder specifications; although care must be taken in how it is determined to ensure that it is accurate, repeatable and reflects the performance characteristics of interest.

A Novel Back-Calculation Approach for Determining the Rheological Properties of RAP Binder

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 19:15
A Novel Back-Calculation Approach for Determining the Rheological Properties of RAP Binder
by Riccardi,C; Falchetto,AC; Leandri,P; Losa,M; Wistuba,MP.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P17 - MAIN


The determination of the rheological properties of the aged binder in reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) materials is a challenging problem. Conventionally, extraction and recovery are used to obtain the RAP binder for further experimental characterization; however, this procedure is not entirely reliable and accurate. Alternative and more precise approaches are based on asphalt mixture tests in combination with complex and sophisticated back-calculation methods which are costly and time consuming. In this paper a new and simple approach to estimate the rheological properties of RAP binder at intermediate temperature is proposed. This is based on Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) tests performed on mortars, composed of a selected fine fraction of RAP and virgin binder, together with a new back-calculation solution. The properties of the bituminous blend of virgin and RAP binders are obtained through the manipulation of the Nielsen model equation to take into account the effects of frequency and temperature on mortar stiffness. The Voigt model is then used to estimate the complex modulus and the phase angle of the RAP binder from the complex modulus and the phase angle of the back-calculated binder blend.

Performance-Space Diagram for the Evaluation of High and Low Temperature Asphalt Mixture Performance

Wed, 11/08/2017 - 18:55
Performance-Space Diagram for the Evaluation of High and Low Temperature Asphalt Mixture Performance
by Buttlar,WG; Hill,BC; Wang,BC; Mogawer,W.
2016.
Asphalt Paving Technology 2016: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists - Indianapolis, Indiana, March 13-16, 2016.
US6 AFN___ 2016P16 - MAIN


This paper presents a simple, yet powerful method for simultaneously evaluating the high and low temperature performance of asphalt paving mixtures for the purpose of mixture design, evaluation, and forensic investigation. A performance-space diagram approach is described, with an emphasis on Hamburg-DC(T) plots presented in this paper. Specifically, a plot of Hamburg wheel tracking results, plotted in reverse order on the y-axis using an arithmetic scale, along with DC(T) fracture energy results, plotted on the x-axis, constitutes the Hamburg-DC(T) plot. Plotting candidate mixture designs, research results, etc., yields a surprising amount of insight towards mixture variables that affect overall performance. For instance, substitution of one straight-run binder grade for another results in a clear, predictable trade-off in the Hamburg-DC(T) performance space. Polymer modified grades, on the other hand, provide a more beneficial shift in the Hamburg-DC(T) space. The benefits of using this approach in the design of mixtures containing recycled asphalt mixture and recycled asphalt shingles are also presented. Effects of rejuvenators and the benefits of stone mastic asphalt designs are also demonstrated. Finally, a broad look at a large database of mixtures recently designed in Illinois is presented.

Communicating Science: A Practrical Guide for Engineers and Physical Scientists

Fri, 09/29/2017 - 15:34
Communicating Science: A Practrical Guide for Engineers and Physical Scientists
by Boxman,R; Boxman,E.
2017.
US7 FWP600 2017C57 - REF


Communicating Science is a textbook and reference on scientific writing oriented primarily at researchers in the physical sciences and engineering. It is written from the perspective of an experienced researcher. It draws on the authors' experience of teaching and working with both native English speakers and English as a Second Language (ESL) writers. For the range of topics covered, this book is relatively short and tersely written, in order to appeal to busy researchers. Communicating Science offers comprehensive guidance on: Graduate students and early career researchers will be guided through the researcher's basic communication tasks: writing theses, journal papers, and internal reports, presenting lectures and posters, and preparing research proposals. Extensive best practice examples and analyses of common problems are presented. Advanced researchers who aim to commercialize their research results will be introduced to business plans and patents, so that they can communicate optimally with patent attorneys and business analysts. Likewise, advanced researchers will be assisted in conveying the results of their research to the industrial and business community, governmental circles, and the general public in the chapter on popular media.

Technical Writing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists

Thu, 09/28/2017 - 20:32
Technical Writing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists
by Laplante,PA.
2012.
What Every Engineer Should Know: vol. 47.
US7 FCT___ 2012T28 - REF


Engineers and scientists of all types are often required to write reports, summaries, manuals, guides, and so forth. While these individuals certainly have had some sort of English or writing course, it is less likely that they have had any instruction in the special requirements of technical writing. This book enables readers to write, edit, and publish materials of a technical nature, including books, articles, reports, and electronic media.

A Short Term Outlook Model for Canadian Grain Transportation Requirements

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
A Short Term Outlook Model for Canadian Grain Transportation Requirements
by Gregory,A.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P73 - INTERNET


The objective of this paper is to outline a potential framework for estimating grain tonnage through marine export corridors given an estimate for near term crop production. This methodology represents the first iteration of a short term predictive model for grain transport. The intent is to produce a monitoring tool that will provide forward looking guidance as to near term transport demand for grain. Near term is defined as the four quarters of an upcoming crop year. The end goal of the framework would be to provide an alert mechanism which will identify situations where the grain export supply chain is not performing according to its normal historical operating parameters.

Western Grain Exceptionalism: Transportation Policy Change Since 1968

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
Western Grain Exceptionalism: Transportation Policy Change Since 1968
by Earl,PD; Prentice,BE.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P72 - INTERNET


The “exceptionalism” referred to in the title of this paper is largely, but not exclusively, rooted in Canada’s grain transportation policies – and specifically rooted in the former Crow’s Nest Pass rates on grain that came into effect in 1899. Their level was originally set under an agreement between the federal government and the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1925, the rates were legislated and extended to cover all rail movements of grain from the designated Prairie Provinces. They were more accurately called “the statutory rates,” but in everyday parlance, continued to be referred to simply as “The Crow.” Since 1982, the Crow rates have undergone several modifications, but unlike all other commodities in Canada, grain freight rates are still subject to control. The purpose of this paper is to trace grain transportation policy since the National Transportation Act (1967) and to consider the wisdom of its continuance.

Government Hopper Cars and the Canadian Grain Handling and Transportation System

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
Government Hopper Cars and the Canadian Grain Handling and Transportation System
by Pratte,S.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P71 - INTERNET


Canada’s Grain Handling and Transportation System (GHTS) is a complex, multi-actor supply chain that transports the collective output of Western Canadian grain farmers to a variety of domestic and international markets. Over the last three decades the GHTS has had to address the handling needs of a harvest that has swelled from 40 to 60 million tonnes annually. One of the critical underpinnings in this supply chain is a fleet of about 22,000 covered hopper cars that are used to gather grain from a prairie rail network spanning over 17,000 route-miles in length. This fleet is an amalgam of equipment supplied by the federal government, two provincial governments, both major railways, shippers and third-party lessors. These hopper cars also represent a mix of both old and new equipment, that vary significantly in terms of physical size and carrying capacity. This paper surveys the evolution of the current hopper-car fleet, its present condition, and its ability to provide for the future handling needs of the GHTS. Finally, it points to some of the practical considerations inherent in replacing the publicly-supplied portion of this fleet, which now represents approximately half of the cars in service, as they approach the end of their economic life.

A Survey of Awareness and Importance of Inland Port Features

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 21:35
A Survey of Awareness and Importance of Inland Port Features
by Larson,PD; Adelman,M.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P70 - INTERNET


CentrePort is an inland port initiative located in Winnipeg, and funded by the federal and provincial governments. This paper explores awareness and importance of CentrePort’s features, in the minds of local logisticians, and its connection to lean logistics. CentrePort is roughly 2,300 km. from the nearest Canadian seaports (Montreal and Vancouver), and 100 km. from the U.S. border. The paper is organized into four more sections. The first section is a literature review, covering inland ports and lean logistics. The second section outlines the research questions and methods used. Statistical results are presented in the third section. The fourth section draws conclusions, including implications for CentrePort, supply chain practitioners and public policy makers.

Analyzing the Transportation Impacts of Free Trade Agreements

Wed, 09/27/2017 - 19:34
Analyzing the Transportation Impacts of Free Trade Agreements
by Bachmann,C.
2016.
Canadian Transportation Research Forum 51st Annual Conference - North American Transport Challenges in an Era of Change//Les défis des transports en Amérique du Nord à une aire de changement Toronto, Ontario, May 1-4, 2016.
CA6 AIP_10 2016P69 - INTERNET


Canada has recently progressed several Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). The country has recently brought the Canada Korea Free Trade Agreement (CKFTA) into force, and has concluded the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) involving the Pacific Rim countries. Previous FTAs suggest sizeable impacts on Canada’s trade may be imminent. The objective of this research is to begin analyzing how CKFTA and CETA will impact Canada’s transportation infrastructure and also what the resulting capacity effects will be on Canada’s global competiveness.

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